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The Elements.

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Presentation on theme: "The Elements."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Elements

2 Hydrogen H Most abundant element, more than 90% of the atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms Reacts with nitrogen to produce ammonia Combustible, it reacts with oxygen exothermically A diatomic molecule Fuel used in the Hindenburg blimp

3 Helium He Not chemically reactive – doesn’t form molecules
Discovered in the sun Found underground and extracted from natural gases Used in blimps and party balloons Used as a stabilizer when moving volatile fuels Not flammable

4 Lithium Li Lithium carbonate (Lithobid) is used to treat manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder Used in lithium batteries used in portable consumer electronic devices Lightest of all metals

5 Carbon C Name comes from coal Three isotopes C-12 C-13 and C-14
10 million + organic compounds described today High heat and pressure: graphite, diamond Bucky ball C-60, a recently discovered form of carbon important in nanotechnology In carbonates in rocks and carbon dioxide in the air

6 Nitrogen N Haber-Bosch process uses nitrogen and hydrogen to make ammonia (for fertilizer and for explosives) Occurs in amino acids and nucleotides Comprises 78% of the air Chemically very unreactive A diatomic molecule

7 Oxygen O It is diatomic molecule It comprises 21% of the air
It is very reactive with many substances It oxidizes many metals Supports the combustion of hydrocarbons

8 Fluorine F Extracted from fluorite – the state mineral of Illinois
Named from the word fluere (flow) Used in refrigerants Poisonous Highly reactive Diatomic molecule

9 Neon Ne Noble gas Can be ionized to produce orange glow (neon lights)

10 Sodium Na Soft malleable silver white metal Occurs in salt
Called “soda” by the English Used in medicine and agriculture Reacts vigorously with water under mineral oil

11 Magnesium Mg It plays a role in many biochemical reactions
Occurs in medicines and fertilizers Whole grains, nuts and green leafy vegetables are good sources of magnesium Fireworks: burns with bright, white light

12 Aluminum Al Possible connection with Alzheimer's
Very high reflectivity Low density malleable metal Used in many alloys Used in cookware, cans, foil

13 Silicon Si It is used in electronic technology (silicon chips)
Used to make silly putty Important component of glass Common in the Earth’s crust; Combines with oxygen to form silicates (granite -> sand) Component of glass

14 Phosphorus P Glows in the dark, named from Greek: phosphoros - bringer of light Two common forms: white and red Discovered by an alchemist: Henning Brand Essential to life Derived from apatite minerals Very cool chemical used for fertilizer, safety matches, pyrotechnics, pesticides.

15 Sulfur S Yellow Hydrogen sulfide is a common gaseous compound that stinks Very important compound is sulfuric acid In a couple of the amino acids that form proteins Used in fungicides

16 Chlorine Cl Chloros – pale green Diatomic molecule
Irritating odor (like bleach) Powerful oxidant – used for sanitation Found in salt: sodium chloride Very reactive (combines with lots of other elements) World war I – mustard gas

17 Potassium K Essential nutrient, found in bananas
Electrolyte in the body (sodium / potassium balance) Used in salt substitute It is an alkali metal (first group or family)

18 Calcium Ca Soft grey alkaline earth metal
Calcium is an essential part of our biochemistry Calcium is part of the mineral apatite (Calcium Phosphate) that makes up bone

19 Chromium Cr Comes from a greek work chroma meaning color
Has many different oxidation states and forms many different beautifully colored compounds It is grey but it makes rubies red Chromium is used in chrome (alloy), doesn’t tarnish

20 Manganese Mn Used in iron and steel production
A component of stainless steel A cofactor in some enzymes Human body contains about 10 mg of manganese Commonly used in batteries, matches, fireworks, glazes, fungicides and varnishes

21 Iron Fe Occurs in the core of our planet and in meteors
Forms in stars from nuclear fusion Iron metal is extracted from iron ores (hematite) Iron is in our blood: hemoglobin Can be magnetized

22 Cobalt Co Discovered in blue glass
Recovered in mining copper and silver Used in alloys, used in joint replacements Cobalt-60 used in radioactive tracers Used in alloys for artificial body parts

23 Nickel Ni Name comes from German word meaning Old Nick’s (false) copper Used in alloys Ni/Cd batteries Corrosion resistant In powerful alnico magnets In chocolate (trace amounts) Some people are allergic to nickel and suffer contact dermatitis

24 Copper Cu Copper comes from cuprum (island of cypress)
Pennies were once made from solid copper but since 1982 they are mostly zinc Natural antibacterial substance Tools made from copper don’t cause sparks Resists corrosion Ancient (pyramids) copper piping found Copper is added to gold to harden it Found in octopus and squid blood

25 Zinc Zn The world has lots of zinc in rock and soil, and everywhere else 2-3 grams in an adult Vital for growth and cell division (and fertility) It is claimed that zinc can reduce the severity of colds Zinc oxide protects from uv rays

26 Arsenic As Discovered in the 8th century Found in a mineral
By the 19th century it had been named “inheritance powder” to hasten the death of someone with money or power Victorian era mixed with vinegar and chalk to cause a lighter (non field worker) complexion

27 Bromine Br It belongs to the halogen family Red color
Discovered in 1826 Came from bromos meaning stench Poisonous In sea water Diatomic molecule

28 Silver Ag Soft white transition metal
Used in its pure form (native metal) Precious metal used in jewelry Used in electrical contacts and as a catalyst Compounds used in photographic film

29 Tin Sn Old name stannum (symbol Sn) Turns to powder below 13 degrees C
The word tin comes from anglo-saxon Used in bronze Tin resists corrosion (caused by salty water) One of the earliest metals Used as a coating of steel pans, hardens copper Stannous fluoride used in toothpaste Tin cans, tin foil Tin powder is highly explosive

30 Iodine I Needed for thyroid function Added to salt
Used as an antiseptic Diatomic molecule

31 Barium Ba Alkaline Earth Metal (2nd column) Soft, silvery white
Oxidizes easily Decomposed by water Glass making, fire works, enemas

32 Gold Au Historically has been used for money and jewelry.
Good conductor of heat and electricity. Does not rust Most malleable of all metals Dissolves in mercury

33 Mercury Hg TOXIC! Liquid metal Was called quicksilver
More toxic when ionized into salt Builds up in body over time Was used in curing felt for hats Used in thermometers Used in amalgam fillings for teeth

34 Lead Pb Pb – Greek term for plombum, meaning plumbing. Plumbing pipes made from lead High density – used to shield from x-rays Used in batteries Very malleable, soft Poisonous

35 Uranium U Radioactive Used in nuclear weapons Used in the “atom” bomb
Silvery gray metal Ore is mined for U-232


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