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to the session on Nutrition From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised.

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Presentation on theme: "to the session on Nutrition From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised."— Presentation transcript:

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2 to the session on Nutrition

3 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students

4 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students CARBOHYDRATES build up by the atoms of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen concerned with storage and distribution of energy classified as -- monosaccharides [ Glucose, Fructose ] -- disaccharides [ Maltose, Sucrose ] -- poly saccharides [ Starch, cellulose ] 1 gram of Carbohydrate have the energy potential of 6.3 Calories

5 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students All simple sugars are either Aldehydes or ketones Glucose is an aldose sugar with – CHO group. Fructose is an Ketose sugar with > C=O group Monosaccharides / Simple sugars monosaccharides are further classified according to the number of Carbon atoms per molecule into: Trioses Pentoses Hexoses Heptuloses

6 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students When two molecules of the same monosaccharides or different ones react together, a disaccharide is formed. When more than two monosaccharide units are combined polysaccharide is formed Polymers of Glucose called amylose and amylopectin are contained in the starch in the ratio being 1:3. Cellulose, Agar-agar, pectin are the plant polysaccharides Glycogen is an animal polysaccharide.

7 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Sources of Carbohydrates starchy foods such as bread, potatoes, and pasta. especially of whole grain varieties with dietary fibre are good source of carbohydrates Dietary Fibre is important for gut function, and may help to reduce the risk of heart disease and some cancers.

8 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Proteins consists of atoms of C, H, O, N and S which build up complex organic substances as amino acids through peptide linkages. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. -- made up of one amino group at one end and carboxylic acid group at the other end.

9 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students 1.Alanine 2.Arginine 3.Aspargine 4.Aspartic acid 5.Cystine 6.Glutamic acid 7.Glutamine 8.Glycine 9.Histidine 10.Iso-leucine 11. Iso-proline 12. Leucine 13. Lysine 14. Methionine 15. Phenyl alanine 16. Proline 17. Serine 18. Threonine 19. Tyrosine 20. Valine Amino acids

10 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Proteins Classification - Simple proteins yields simple amino acids on complete hydrolysis. [Albumins, Globulins, Prolamines, Protamines, Histones] - Conjugated proteins A protein group bonded to a non-protein or prothetic group. [Nucleo proteins – nucleic acids, Muco proteins – polysaccharides] - Derived proteins Formed by the partial hydrolysis of proteins, [ Peptones]

11 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students SOURCES OF PROTEINS PLANT PROTEINS ground nuts soya beans green peas dhals ANIMAL PROTEINS edible locusts cheese fishes meat eggs

12 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Physiologically proteins are classified into Structural proteins e.g. Keratins, Collagens, Scelero proteins Functional Proteins. e.g. Enzymes, Hormones Proteins are considered as body builders. Performs as Regulators with the Vitamins and Minerals

13 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students - - are the fatty substances found in all living organisms. - - soluble in alcohol, ether, or other organic solvents. - - highly energy rich compound insoluble in water gram of lipid provides 9.3 Calories of energy. -: Sources of Lipids :- Vegetable Oils Animal fats Fish Oils

14 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Lipids are classified into Simple lipids (on hydrolysis glycerol and fatty acids are liberated) Compound lipids (formed through the combination with other compounds e.g. Phospho lipids, Glyco lipids, Lipo proteins) Derived lipids (derived from the partial hydrolysis e.g. Cholestrol)

15 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students They act as bio-catalysts combining with proteins to create metabolically active enzymes that in turn produce hundreds of important chemical reactions throughout the body. Without vitamins, many of these reactions would slow down or cease Vitamins are organic substances whose presence is indispensable for the proper growth and upkeep of the body.

16 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students classified according to their solubility in fat or water. VITAMINS Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E and K They are generally consumed along with fat containing foods, and because they can be stored in the body's fat, they do not have to be consumed every day. Water-soluble vitamins: B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C They cant be stored and must be consumed frequently, preferably every day (with the exception of some B vitamins)

17 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN A ` known as ` Anti Xeropthalmic vitamin or Retinol Food sources : Retinol are fish liver oil, dairy products, carrot, yellow maize, egg yolk and spinach Functions: Visual perception, maintains the integrity of epithelium. Deficiency diseases: Xerosis [corneal epithelia becomes red and dry] Nyctalopia (Night Blindness), Xeropthalmia (cornea become wrinkled and carotinised), Keratomalacia (Necrosis and infection of Cornea) Atrophy of lacrymal glands of the eye and reduction in tear secretion, Appearance of Bitots spot in the cornea.

18 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN B1 Foods richest in thiamine are pork, organ meats, yeast, eggs, whole or enriched cereals, wheat germ, berries, maintains the normal growth appetite and plays a role in the synthesis of nerve- regulating substances Deficiency diseases: Beri-beri, muscular weakness, Beri-Beri affects nervous and cardio vascular systems `known as Thiamine

19 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN B2 Food sources: liver, milk, meat, dark green vegetables, whole grain and enriched cereals, etc., Necessary for cellular respiration Deficiency diseases: Loss of appetite, soreness of lips, mouth and tongue. Fissures appear at edges of the mouth. `known as Riboflavin

20 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN B3 Food sources: liver, milk, meat, dark green vegetables, whole grain, cereals, etc., Plays as co-enzyme, Necessary for cellular respiration Deficiency diseases: Pellagra {symptoms: tongue becomes red and painful, mental changes (dementia), dermatitis and stomatitis} ` known as Niacin or Nicotinic Acid (Antipellagra vitamin )

21 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN B 6 Food sources: Egg yolk, liver, meat, fish, bananas, whole (but not enriched) grains, and leguminous plants Necessary for absorption and metabolism of amino acids and Fats Pyridoxine deficiency : Dermatitis around eyes, nose, and behind ears. Fissures appear above the lips and angles of the mouth. ` known as Pyridoxine

22 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN B 12 Food sources: Egg yolk, liver, kidney, meat, fish and milk Necessary for the formation of nucleoproteins, proteins, and red blood cells, and for the functioning of the nervous system Deficiency diseases: Pernicious anaemia Sore tongue and some neurological problems related with spinal cord ` known as Cyanocobalamine

23 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN C Food sources: Citrus fruits and tomatoes maintains intra cellular metabolism Provides immunity against infections Deficiency diseases: Scurvy, loss of weight and fatigue, Bleeding Gums, Loosening of teeth ` known as Ascorbic acid

24 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN D ` known as ` Anti richitic vitamin or Calciferol Food sources: fish liver oil, dairy products, carrot, yellow maize, egg yolk etc., Functions: Regulates the Calcium and Phosphorous metabolism. Essential for normal development of the bones and muscles Deficiency diseases: Rickets in children Osteomalacia in adults Defective calcification of bones

25 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN E ` known as ` Anti sterilitic vitamin or Tocopherol Food sources: wheat germ oil, leafy vegetables and lettuce, etc., Essential for normal fertility Remains as anti-toxidant Deficiency diseases: Sterility is observed

26 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students VITAMIN K ` known as ` Anti haemorrhagic vitamin Food sources: carrot, yellow maize, egg yolk husk of whole grains, yeast and milk etc. Formation of Prothrombin, Essential for normal blood clotting Deficiency diseases: Leads to haemorrhage

27 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Fat Soluble Vitamins: a review FOOD SOURCESHEALTH BENEFITSDEFICIENCY A Green vegetables, milk products, liver light-sensitive pigments in eye, epithelial tissue maintenance Night blindness, extremely dry skin Xeropthalmia D Dairy products, eggs, cod liver oil, UV light Calcium absorption, bone formation Rickets E Margarine, seeds, green leafy vegetables Protects fatty acids and cell membranes from oxidation Possibly anaemia, sterility K Green leafy vegetablesBlood coagulationhaemorrhage

28 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Water Soluble Vitamins Students Assignment: prepare a table for

29 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students

30 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Calcium Milk, cheese, dried legumes, vegetables Bone and teeth formation, nerve transmission, blood clotting. Rickets, osteoporosis, convulsions Chlorine Foods containing salt; some vegetables and fruits Fluid regulation between cells or cell layers Acid-base imbalance in body fluids

31 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Magnesium Whole grains; green, leafy vegetables Enzyme activation, protein synthesis Growth failure, behaviour problems, spasms Phosphorus Milk, cheese, yoghurt, fish, poultry, meats, grains Bone and teeth formation, acid-base balance maintenance Weakness, loss of calcium

32 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Potassium Bananas, leafy vegetables, potatoes, cantaloupe, milk, meats Acid-base balance and fluid balance maintenance, nerve transmission, regular cardiac rhythm Muscle cramps, Loss of appetite, Mental confusion, Sulphur Fish, poultry, meats Acid-base balance maintenance liver function Disorders Fluorine Drinking water, tea, seafood Bone maintenance, Osteoporosis; tooth decay

33 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Sodium Common salt, Meat, fish Acid-base balance, body water balance, nerve function Muscle cramps, reduced appetite, mental apathy Zinc Lean meat, whole-grain breads and cereals, dried beans, seafood Component of enzymes of digestion, cell repair, reproduction Growth failure, small sex glands, delayed wound healing

34 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Iodine Salt-water fish, shellfish, vegetables, iodized salt Component of thyroid hormone Goitre, feeble intelligence Iron Lean meats, eggs, whole grains,leafy vegetables, legumes Haemoglobin formation energy metabolism Anaemia

35 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Chromium Legumes, cereals, meats, fats, vegetable oils, whole grains Glucose metabolism Adult onset diabetes Copper Legumes, cereals, meats, fats, vegetable oils, whole grains Red blood cell formation Anaemia, impairs bone and nervous tissue development

36 From T. MADHAVAN, M.Sc., M.L.I.S., M.Ed., M.Phil., P.G.D.C.A., Lecturer in Zoology.. This power presentation is optimised for the Higher Secondary students Zoology Text book of XII std. By Tamil Nadu Text Book Society Encarta Encyclopedia


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