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© Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Chapter 6: Focus on Supporting Details in Paragraphs From.

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Presentation on theme: "© Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Chapter 6: Focus on Supporting Details in Paragraphs From."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Chapter 6: Focus on Supporting Details in Paragraphs From this chapter, youll learn 1.how topic sentences expressing the main idea and supporting details work together to convey the point of a paragraph. 2.how to tell the difference between major and minor details. 3.how category words and addition transitions provide clues to major details. 4.about the difference between supporting details and concluding sentences.

2 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Supporting Details are specific sentences that explain, prove, or suggest the main idea. can be reasons, illustrations, statistics, definitions, etc. change according to the main idea they explain, convince, or imply. clarify key terms and prove the authors point. answer questions raised by the main idea expressed in the topic sentence.

3 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Connecting Main Ideas and Supporting Details Topic Sentences Expressing the Main Idea use general language. make statements that raise questions. Supporting Details place limits on how the general language can be understood. answer questions raised by the topic sentence.

4 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Topic Sentences Expressing the Main Idea are Bound to Raise Questions. Topic Sentence: Lyndon Johnson, the thirty-sixth president of the United States, did much good and even more harm during his term in office. Questions raised: 1. How did Johnson do good? 2. How did he do harm? 3. How is it possible to do both at the same time?

5 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. These Four Supporting Details Answer The Three Questions. 1.Johnson was responsible for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. 2.Thanks to Lyndon Johnson, those over the age of sixty-five now have federally funded medical assistance in the form of Medicare. 3.Yet, although all the signs were there that the Vietnam War was disastrous for the United States and for Vietnam, Johnson kept the war going. 4.His stubborn determination in the face of guaranteed failure cost immeasurable suffering.

6 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Spot Check: Recognizing Major Details If this is the topic sentenceAlthough a 1995 landmark conference in Beijing China, called for equality for women around the world, many women all over the globe still do not have equality with menwhich one of the following sentences could be a major detail that helps explain that point?

7 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. a.Icelands Vigdís Finnbogadóttir was the first woman to become a democratically elected head of state. b.In Tunisia, during the Arab protests of 2011, women played a critical role in the uprising against dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. c.In parts of Pakistan where the Taliban still hold sway, women must adhere to strict rules of modesty and keep their faces covered for fear of being punished by men they do not even know. Spot Check: Recognizing Major Details

8 In some parts of the world, women dont dare show their faces in public for fear of reprisal. © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. © Ulrich Flemming

9 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. There are two kinds of supporting details, major and minor. Major Details refer directly to the main idea expressed in the topic sentence. clarify or prove some part of the topic sentence. Minor Details follow and further develop major details. are the most specific sentences in the paragraph. add human interest or repetition for emphasis.

10 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Major and Minor Details Work Together to Develop the Main Idea If diagrammed, the topic sentence along with major and minor details, would look some- thing like the ladder diagram that follows:

11 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 5.2 Diagram of Major and Minor Details with Topic Sentence Main idea: Most people dont realize that the holiday we call Labor Day began under very sad circumstances. Major Detail: Labor Day got its start when President Grover Cleveland sent troops to break up a railroad workers strike, and many striking workers were injured; the strike was broken but the public was angry. Minor Detail: To calm the publics outrage, Congress rushed the national holiday, called Labor Day, into law. Note the importance of the minor detail.

12 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. A Word to the Wise Dont be misled by the words major and minor. Minor details can add important information as they do in the previous example. While some add just emphasis or repetition, others provide key details. Always evaluate the minor details. © Ulrich Flemming

13 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Can you separate the topic sentence from the major and minor details? 1. The e-mail usually includes quotations from the Bible and a request for money. 2.With this scam, the target receives an e-mail from someone, supposedly a foreigner, who wants to spread the word of God but needs financial help because of illness, age, or government interference. 3. One especially popular Internet scam targets people of the Christian faith.

14 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Topic Sentences with Category Words Offer Clues to Major Details Category Words sum up and generally refer to a number of more specific activities, events, and behaviors. are words like characteristics, studies, styles, similarities, and practices. point the way to major details, which define each characteristic, study, style, similarity, and practice, etc., referred to the topic sentence.

15 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Which Topic Sentence Provides a Category Word Clue to the Major Details? The American painter Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) became a superstar in the art world practically overnight, after his picture appeared in a 1949 issue of Life magazine. History has not been kind to John C. Calhoun (1782-1850), the former vice-president and senator from North Carolina. Early in the twentieth century, the Supreme Courts rulings in a number of key cases put some teeth into the Constitutions guarantee of free speech.

16 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Recognizing Major Details The correct answer is the third sentence: Early in the twentieth century, the Supreme Courts rulings in a number of key cases put teeth into the Constitutions guarantee of free speech. The topic sentence announces to readers that each ruling or case will be a major detail.

17 Write Down this Topic Sentence Worried about the gender imbalance in the population, with males outnumbering females to an alarming degree, the Chinese government has begun to introduce measures designed to improve the cultures view of womens importance. Whats the category word and which of the following flesh that word out? © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.

18 Recognizing Major Details Which two sentences would be major details in relation to the previous statement? 1. The government has begun offering bonuses to families with more than one female child. 2. The government has also changed inheritance laws making it easier for daughters to inherit family property. 3.The bonuses are not large but they are an incentive meant to discourage the aborting of females, a practice that has contributed to the decline in the female population.

19 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. The Role of Addition Transitions Although they are not as reliable as the topic sentences just covered, transitions are also clues to major details. Transitions like next, first, second, and finally frequently introduce major details. In effect, they say to readers, Heres another one. Pay attention.

20 Concluding Sentences as their name implies, come at the end of paragraphs. explain how some problem or situation was resolved or should be resolved. dont directly support the main idea. can still contain significant information. © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.

21 Does this paragraph end with a concluding sentence or a supporting detail? John Lewis, Georgias long-time congressional representative, risked his life to win equality for himself and his fellow African-Americans. In 1965, Lewis was a young and passionate civil rights activist, who participated in the march over Selma, Alabamas Edmund Pettus bridge in order to win the right to vote. The marchers were met by police armed with clubs and snarling dogs. Lewis and 90 other demonstrators were badly hurt. But the violence against the demonstrators, which ended up being televised, outraged the public and increased support for African-American civil rights. Twenty-three years later, when Barack Obama was inaugurated, Lewis said, Barack Obama is what comes at the end of that bridge in Selma.

22 Finishing Up: Focusing on Supporting Details in Paragraphs Youve previewed the major concepts and skills introduced in Chapter 6. Take this quick quiz to test your mastery of those skills and concepts, and you are ready to read the chapter. © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. © Ulrich Flemming

23 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Finishing Up: Focusing on Supporting Details in Paragraphs 1. In the the following topic sentence, what words would you expect the major details to further develop: Giacomo Rizzolatti of Italys University of Parma has done some very interesting research on mirror neurons.

24 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Finishing Up: Focusing on Supporting Details in Paragraphs The most obvious phrase to be addressed by the major supporting details is mirror neurons. Rizzolattis interesting research would also require some explanation. Readers would want to know why the research is interesting. Without a definition of mirror neurons and an explanation of the research, the topic sentence would raise expectations in the reader that go unanswered.

25 Whats the topic sentence of this paragraph, and is the last sentence a supporting detail or a concluding sentence? 2. Up until the 16 th century, people believed that Earth was the center of the universe. But in 1543, Nicholas Copernicus, a Polish scientist, challenged that world view. In his book Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, Copernicus argued that the earth actually revolved around the sun. His theory challenged the existing belief that the sun revolved around Earth. Although he waited until he was about to die to publish his ideas, Copernicus still suffered from the critical response to his work, which was condemned by the Catholic Church. © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.

26 Whats the topic sentence of this paragraph, and is the last sentence a supporting detail or a concluding sentence? 3. The Prohibition laws of the 1920s, which made drinking liquor illegal, actually caused rather hindered illegal activity. Nationwide, Americans showed nothing but contempt for the laws. Attempts to enforce it were met with hostility. Worst of all, control of liquor distribution fell into the hands of organized crime, and gang members routinely killed one another over the right to distribute liquor. In 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution, formally put an end to Prohibition laws. © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.

27 Brain Teaser Challenge © Ulrich Flemming

28 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Brain Teaser Challenge Read the following four quotations. Then decide which more general main idea they illustrate. a.I dont care if a dude is purple with green breath as long as he can swing. (Miles Davis) b.So what if were Asian. Listen to the flow of our rhyme, and youll forget what color we are. (Chops, former member of the Asian-American rap group, Mountain Brothers)

29 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Brain Teaser Challenge c.Long before the Civil Rights Act, long before Brown vs. The Board of Education, and long before President Trumans integration of the armed forces, black and white musicians were breaking social taboos to learn from each other. (Jeff Perry, diversity trainer) d.I dont care if hes purple [referring to white rapper Eminem], as long as he can rap! (Dr. Dre)

30 © Laraine Flemming. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. The four quotes about music and musicians provide support for which of these more general statements? 1.Music of all the arts has the most influence on the passions. (Napoleon Bonaparte) 2.If music be the food of love, play on. (Shakespeare) 3.Music is the universal language of mankind. (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) 4.I dont know anything about music. In my line, you dont have to. (Elvis Presley)


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