2Facial expression Darwin (1872) catalogued facial expressions He emphasized their universal natureAnd emotions as signalsE.g., bowlers do not smile when they get a strike they smile when they turn around to see other watching them (Kraut & Johnston, 1979)
3Evolution of facial expressions Anger = open mouth threat, displayFear = grimace, silent bared teeth, nervous grinHappy = Chimpanzee play faceDisgust ? ejection of bad food, wrinkling nose to bad smellSad?Surprise? Interest raised eyebrows to see more
6From: www.bushorchimp.com Similarities in facial expression across closely related species?
7Facial Expression of Emotion EmissionCross cultural similarity of expressions. Papua New Guinea “imagine your child died” (Ekman & Friesen 1975)Cultural differences in frequency of expressionJapanese less negative expressions in society (Matsumoto et al 1988)
9Facial Expression of Emotion EmissionCross cultural similarity of expressions and causesDeaf and blind children’s expressions are normalTherefore production of expressions is innate (Darwin)ComprehensionUniversal interpretation of 6 basic emotions (Ekman)happy, sad, angry, fear, surprise, disgust,