2 Facial expression Darwin (1872) catalogued facial expressions He emphasized their universal natureAnd emotions as signalsE.g., bowlers do not smile when they get a strike they smile when they turn around to see other watching them (Kraut & Johnston, 1979)
3 Evolution of facial expressions Anger = open mouth threat, displayFear = grimace, silent bared teeth, nervous grinHappy = Chimpanzee play faceDisgust ? ejection of bad food, wrinkling nose to bad smellSad?Surprise? Interest raised eyebrows to see more
6 From: www.bushorchimp.com Similarities in facial expression across closely related species?
7 Facial Expression of Emotion EmissionCross cultural similarity of expressions. Papua New Guinea “imagine your child died” (Ekman & Friesen 1975)Cultural differences in frequency of expressionJapanese less negative expressions in society (Matsumoto et al 1988)
9 Facial Expression of Emotion EmissionCross cultural similarity of expressions and causesDeaf and blind children’s expressions are normalTherefore production of expressions is innate (Darwin)ComprehensionUniversal interpretation of 6 basic emotions (Ekman)happy, sad, angry, fear, surprise, disgust,