31DuplicationFragment of one chromosome attaches to a homologous chromosome
32TranslocationFragment reattaches in reverse direction (less likely to produce harm)
33INVERSIONThe chromosome breaks in two places, a piece of the chromosome is removed and the chromosome pieces remaining rejoin.
34InversionsInversions, by definition, do not involve loss or gain of chromosomal material.
35INVERSION 46,XY,inv(16)The left one is normal and the right one is inverted near the centromere.
3645,XX,rob(13,14) A Robertsonian translocation (an end to end fusion of #13 and #14) There is no net gain or loss of genetic material in this person so they would have a normal phenotype.45,XX,rob(13,14) A Robertsonian translocation
37ApplicationsChromosomes from the father of a retarded child... a portion ofchromosome 11 (blue) has beentransfered to chromosome 1(yellow).