2Scope Introduction First-Aid Priorities Animal Bites Dog Bites Insect StingsInjuries by Marine CreaturesSnake BitesQ & A
3IntroductionMost animals will not turn aggressive unless provoked. Staying away from these wild animals could prevent many unnecessary injuries.It is only wise be equipped with a first aid kit when involved in outdoor activities.Before attempting a rescue, ensure personal safety before approaching a victim that is under attack.Always call 995 for assistance if you are unable to handle the situation alone.
4Rescue Procedure Ensure personal safety before attempting rescue Assess victim’s condition (e.g. consciousness level)Calm the victim by reassuring victimTreat any visible injuries and minimize any risk of further injury and infection.Call 995 if you are unable to handle the injuries aloneIdentify the injury and the source to assist the medical team in treating the wounds and anticipating certain symptoms such as anaphylactic shock.
5Animal BitesAnimals with sharp teeth can cause deep puncture wounds and carry germs deep into the tissues and result in an infection.Any bite that breaks the skin can cause the victim to become very vulnerable to infection.
6Dog BitesCanines are born with teeth to hunt and an instinct that commands it to bite whatever targets it considers as prey.These instincts could result in very severe injuries to the victim.Dogs are generally very protective over- Food- Territory- YoungWhen threatened, theywill attack to protect them.
7Prevention Do not run past a dog Do not travel alone in the wild Do not approach a dog when it’s eatingDo not approach a dog when it’s tied upDo not snatch anything that belongs to the dogDo not pat any stray dog even if it seems pitiful or cute
8Prevention Avoid attracting a dog to you with food or sound Do not approach a dog when it is nursing its puppies.Never force a dog into a corner or threaten it for the fun of it.Treat every dog you do not know with caution.Do not throw objects or provoke animals (Dogs etc…)Do not intrude into their territory
9How to recognize an unfriendly dog? A 'normal' but unfriendly dog exhibits various signs.It is signaling to you that it is not welcoming your presence and to keep away.1st sign: It barks at you to keep away. The tail is notwagging and usually up.2nd sign: It growls from its throat with a deep soundsignaling that it is serious.3rd sign: It snarls and bare its teeth and adopt apouncing position. It shows tension and anger.4th sign: Its eyes "flashes' (shiny eyes with pupils dilated)It is either at the brink of going to attack you oris already attacking you.
10During an attackDefend yourself with any available stick or bag. Shield yourself from the attacking canine. Initial Defence could deter the dog from advancing furtherAs a last resort, drop down and protect your face, neck and the front part of your body as well as you can.Shout for help.Seek medical attention immediately. Inform the doctor of the vicinity where the attack occurred. They need to check it if is an area where there are dogs with rabies
11Treatment for Animal Bites (For serious wounds) Control bleeding by applying direct pressure and raising the injured part.
12Treatment for Animal Bites (For serious wounds) Cover the wound with a sterile dressing or a non fluffy clean pad bandaged in place to control bleeding.Arrange to take or send the casualty to hospital.
13Treatment for Animal Bites (For superficial wounds) Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and warm water in order to minimize the risk of infection.
14Treatment for Animal Bites (For superficial wounds) Pat the wound dry with clean gauze swabs and cover with an adhesive dressing or small sterile dressing.Advise the casualty to see a doctor in case inoculation (vaccination) is needed. If the wound is large or deep, arrange to send the casualty to hospital.
15Potential Infections of Animal Bites RabiesA potentially fatal viral infection of the nervous system, spread in the saliva of infected animals.Hepatitis B or C virusesThere is probably only a small risk of hepatitis B or C viruses being transmitted through a human bite.
16Insect StingsBee, wasp and hornet stings usually are painful rather than dangerous.An initial sharp pain is followed by mild swelling and soreness, which first aid can relieve.Some people are allergic to stings and can rapidly develop the serious condition of anaphylactic shock. Multiple stings can also be dangerous.Stings in the mouth or throat are serious, as swelling can cause obstruction to the airway.
17Treatment for Insect Stings (For a sting in the skin) Reassure the casualty.Apply constant firm pressure, scrape or brush the sting off with your fingernail or blunt edge of knife. (Tweezers are not recommended as it may squeeze the venom sac thus increasing the venom released).If stung on the fingers or hands, remove any rings and watches in case of swelling.Wrap a few ice cubes in a towel and apply on the area for minutes to stop the pain and swelling. Do not apply ice directly on the sting area to prevent frostbite. Advise the casualty to see his doctor if the pain and swelling persist.Bee StingBee Sting
18Treatment for Insect Stings (For a sting in the mouth) Reassure the casualty. Give the casualty ice to suck or cold water to sip, to minimize swelling. DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE.
19Symptoms of Bee Stings Red, swollen, or warm lump Hives Rash Itching, tingling, numbness, burning, tenderness, painSerious allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) occur when symptoms spread. These can include difficulty in breathing, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, fever, muscle spasms, or loss of consciousness. Call for emergency medical help right away.
20Safety Precautions Against Insect Bites/Stings Use insect repellantsWear long pants / T-shirtDuring an attack, cover your face and run in a straight line as quickly as possible.Grab a net, coat, towel, or anything that will give you momentary relief.During your escape, try to find shelter like a house, tent or car with windows and door closed.Avoid other people as they too may come under attack.Bees may pursue for up to 400mThey are slow fliers and most people can outrun a bee.Hence, be alert for bees coming in and out through cracks in a wall.Stay away once you notice a bee colony. Do not provoke it.
21Treatment for Insect Stings (For Tick Bites) Using fine-pointed tweezers, grasp the tick’s head as close to the casualty’s skin as possible.Use a slight to-and-fro action to lever, rather than pull, the head out. The mouthparts will be very firmly embedded in the skin; try to avoid breaking the tick and leaving the buried head behind.
23Sea creatures can cause injury in various ways. In some parts of the world, particularly in tropical regions, severe poisoning can occur, and occasionally death results from a severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock), or paralysis of the chest muscles leads to drowning.
24Dangerous Sea Creatures JellyfishJellyfish stings occur when people brush against it in the water or step on those washed ashore. Jellyfish washed ashore can sting for weeks. Detached tentacles can also release venom.The Portuguese Man-of-War (a type of jellyfish) is well known for its painful and powerful sting. The stings can cause fever, shock as well as heart and lung problems. Sea wasps (Box Jellyfish) have tentacles containing thousands of stinging cells. Stings usually occur when people bump into them. The tentacles become sticky and adhere tightly to the skin. When the cells come into contact with human skin, they release their venom and cause severe pain.
26Sea urchinsSea urchins are found in tropical and subtropical marine regions. The spines of the sea urchins are used to deliver their venom. The sting can cause severe burning pain, swelling, bleeding, itch, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness and difficulty breathing. The symptoms may develop immediately and may last up to 6 hours. Deep puncture wounds may be seen after a sting.
27StingraysStingrays are often found buried and feeding in shallow water. Stingrays are not aggressive by nature. People are usually stung when they step on the stingray. The sting causes profuse bleeding, swelling and severe pain that can last for months. Other symptoms that may develop are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, muscle cramps, and fits.
28Treatment for Marine Stings Reassure the casualty and sit him or her down, Pour copious amounts of vinegar or sea water over the injury to incapacitate stinging cells that have not yet released venom.*Alcohol may aggravate the injury and should not be used. Avoid rubbing sand on the affected area.
30Treatment for Marine Stings Dust a dry powder over the skin around the affected area to make any remaining stinging cells stick together. Talcum powder is very good for this. Meat tenderiser, used in barbecue cooking, is also good as it contains papain, which inactivates venom.
32Treatment for Marine Stings Gently brush off the powder with a clean, non-fluffy pad.*If the injuries are severe, or there is a serious general reaction, DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE.If the casualty is having difficulty breathing, she may be in anaphylactic shock.
33Treatment for Marine Puncture Wounds Gently pull out any protruding spines. Do not crush the spines.Soak the affected area into hot (not scalding) water for minutes to ease pain. If pain returns later, try the heat soaks again.Take or send the casualty to hospital.
34Safety Precautions against stings from Marine Creatures Proper footwearBe careful when handling marine creatures as they may have venomous spines and stingsKeep away from jellyfish
37A snake bite is often not a serious injury, but it can be very frightening. Reassurance is vital, for if the casualty keeps still and calm, the spread of venom may be delayed.Try to get a description of the snake. This will help the doctor to identify the snake and the correct treatment. Do not try to catch the snake.Notify the police if the snake remains at large.
38How to Recognise a Snake Bite A pair of puncture marks.Severe pain at the site of the bite.Redness and swelling around the bite.Nausea and vomiting.Laboured breathing; in extreme cases, respiration may stop altogether.Disturbed vision.Increased salivation and sweating.
39Treatment for Snake Bites Lay the casualty down. Tell the casualty to keep calm and still.Gently wash the wound and pat dry with clean swabs. DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE.
40Treatment for Snake Bites Lightly compress the limb above the wound with a roller bandage. Use triangular bandages to immobilize the affected area to minimize the spread of venom.Position the injured limb below the level of the heart. If she stops breathing, be ready to resuscitate if needed.*DO NOT apply a tourniquet, a bandage or ice on the wound, slash the wound with a knife, or suck the venom.If there is eye irritation, rinse the eye under gently running cool water for at least 15 minutes. Prevent run-off water from entering the unaffected eye.
41Treatment for Snake Bites Broad-fold bandageSoft paddingKeep the heart above the level of wounded partTie narrow-fold bandage in figure-of-eight around feetLightly compress with Roller bandageLeave bite exposed
42Safety Precautions from Snake Bites Do not try and chase, provoke, catch or beat up the snakeMove away if you spot a snake