9 2. Mantlesoft, moist layer inside the shell of mollusks.Mantle
10 3. Shellouter layer.Most made of calcium carbonate. CaCO3Shell
11 4. Gills gas exchange occurs through the mantle and the gills. Gills also filter food particles from the water.
12 5. Footextends out and helps with movement.Foot
13 6. Heart Has a 3 chambered heart. a. Open circulatory system - blood moves through vessels and into spaces around the body organs.Ex: Snails, squid, and clam
14 6. Heartb. Closed circulatory system - blood moves through the body enclosed entirely in a series of blood vessels.Some mollusks, such as octopuses, move nutrientsand oxygen through a closed circulatory system.
15 Mollusks have a well-developed circulatory system that includes a three-chambered heart.
16 7. Siphonsact as devices to let water in and out of mollusks.
17 8. Nephridiatube like structure that form the excretory system.
18 9. Visceral mass area located between the muscular foot and mantle contains most of the internal organs.
19 Mollusk DiversityForm the second largest phylum. Contains 7 different types of mollusks.First animals to have evolved respiratory organs.
20 Classified accordingto shell type, muscular foot structure, and arrangement of internal body organs.
21 Chitonslive on rocky surfaces in shallow water. Ex: Chitons ( KY - tunz)Most primitive mollusks, do not have a ganglia and have simple sense organs.
23 Snails and Slugs largest class of mollusks. Have a radula that scrapes up algae or tears apart plants or one piece shells.Have sense organs concentrated in the head region. Open circulatory system.Aquatic gastropods use gills as respiratory organs.
24 Snails and slugsSea slugEx: snails or slugssnails
25 BivalvesDo not have a head, have two shells attached by a hinge, have sense receptors, ganglia, most are marine, and do not have a radula.Filter feeders.
26 BivalvesEx: clams, mussels, scallops and oystersmusselscallopclam
27 Cephalopods Tentacled mollusk modified head and foot regions. Have a highly developed nervous system, sense organs, usually no external shell, closed circulatory system and can usually swim fast.
34 Trivia:The largest-known squid was 57 feet (17.5 m) long.
35 1. In shelled mollusks, the ___________ secretes the shell. 2. Bivalves obtain food by ______________.3. ______________ have two shells.4. The excretory structures that remove metabolic wastes from the bodies of animals such as mollusks and annelids are called ________________.MantleFilter FeedingBivalveNephridia
36 5. An animal whose blood moves throughout its body within blood vessels has a(n) ___________________.6. The ____________ is a tongue like organ with rows of teeth that is used by gastropods to scrape, grate, or cut food.7. The most complex and most recently evolved mollusks are _______________.Closed Circulatory systemRadulaCephalopods
37 8. What compound are most shells composed of? 9. ____________ are involved in removing wastes from a mollusk’s body.10. Which animal is believed to be smarter a snail or a squid?CaCO3 and SiO2Siphons or NephridiaSquid
47 5. GizzardGrinds up soil , freeing the organic matter and breaking it down.5
48 6. Intestine long , straight tube where organic matter digested. Eat their way through the soil. (Casting - earthworm’s waste)6.
49 7. Circulatory system closed system. (Aortic arches - muscular structures that functions as simple hearts by contracting and forcing blood into the ventral blood vessels.7
50 8. Respiratory systemGas exchange takes place across the skin. Skin must be moist for diffusion of oxygen to take place.Produce a mucous secretion and have an outer cuticle that helps keep skin moist.
51 9. Nervous System has a small brain made up of fused ganglia At the anterior end of the digestive tract.
52 10. Reproductive systemReproduce sexually, are hermaphrodites, but cannot fertilize their own eggs.When mate join head to tail and secrete a mucus covering around the joined areas and each worm then releases sperm into a special sac in the other worm.
53 11. Skeletal systemhydrostatic (fluid filled to hold shape).
61 The medicinal leech is best known as the organism used for blood letting (people used to believe many health problems caused by getting rid of "bad" blood). Surprisingly, they are being used once again to remove blood from hematomas (areas of blood leakage) resulting from surgery (like re-attaching severed limbs, etc.). The ability of the leeches to parasitize humans and other mammals depends on a variety of adaptations that allow them to pierce or cut into skin without notice. Hirudo uses three sharp cutting plates (teeth) like circular-saw blades to make a Y-shaped incision in the skin. While cutting the skin, it secretes an anesthetic as well as a histamine-like substance that keeps the blood vessels open. The blood is then sucked into the pharynx. While it is being swallowed, an anticoagulant protein called hirudin produced by the salivary glands is added to the blood to prevent it from clotting. After the salt-water from this blood is eliminated by the nephridia, the concentrated blood is stored in within numerous diverticula (outpocketings) of the crop called gastric caeca (ceca). The proteins of hemoglobin and other components of the blood are then digested extremely slowly (as long as 200 days), which provides enough energy to live another 100 days without feeding! Surprisingly, the gut does not secrete digestive enzymes. Instead, the leeches rely on bacteria in the gut for enzymatic digestion. In the medicinal leech, a single species of bacterium digests the blood and also produces an antibiotic that eliminates any other bacteria from the digestive tract, allowing the red blood cells to remain unspoiled within the leech for up to a year! This also means that you don't have to worry about getting a bacterial infection from the leech!Medical Leech