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Teeth Tongue Salivary Glands Pharynx Epiglottis Uvula.

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Presentation on theme: "Teeth Tongue Salivary Glands Pharynx Epiglottis Uvula."— Presentation transcript:

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6 Teeth Tongue Salivary Glands Pharynx Epiglottis Uvula

7 Teeth, tongue, and saliva Mastication: Chewing – Increases surface area exposed to digestive juices Peristalsis: Contractions – Allows food particles to mix with enzymes and gastric juices

8 Made of tissues varying in density and hardness 3 different types of teeth needed for digestion Incisors Canines Molars

9 Extremely muscular and mobile Epithelial cells Located on the floor of the mouth Tasting, chewing and swallowing

10 Produce saliva in mouth – Mucin – Buffers preventing tooth decay – Antibacterial agents – Salivary amylase Acini Three pairs of salivary glands

11 Short and broad muscular tube beginning at the back of the mouth From mouth and nose to esophagus and larynx Permits passage of swallowed solids and liquids into esophagus Divided into three parts Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx

12 Flap of tissue preventing food from entering the trachea Upward during breathing Horizontal when swallowing Food goes down the esophagus

13 Cone-shaped mass of tissue hanging from the soft palate Works to make sure food goes down the right tube while swallowing Blocks off airway to the nose

14 A muscular tube that passes food from pharynx to the stomach 25 cm long Behind trachea and heart Transport of liquids depends on how body is positioned when swallowing

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16 Begins in the mouth with salivary amylase Gastric fluid Pepsinogen pepsin peptides Hydrochloric acid- low pH, dissolves minerals, and kills bacteria Mucus protects stomach from the acid and pepsin images/stomach_diagram.jpg

17 3-4 hours of stomach digestion Chyme Peristalsis forces chyme out of the stomach Pyloric sphincter regulates the flow of chyme Then it mixes with secretions form the liver and pancreas in the small intestine estive- system/stomach.cfm

18 21 ft long Duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum Continuation of chemical digestion of chyme Glands release enzymes that complete digestion guide/reftext/html/dige_sys_fin.html system/small_intestine.cfm

19 Folds of intestine covered with villi Absorption The end products of digestion are transferred into the circulatory system Lacteals

20 Colon Peristalsis Four major parts of the colon Sigmoid colon leads into the rectum and anal canal Feces Recovering water Harmless bacteria es/ency/fullsize/19220.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagep ages/19220.htm&h=320&w=400&sz=22&tbnid=GtQVeA06- ND7RM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlarge%2Bintestine&hl=en&usg =__KRfR924GR6x6tIMuCUvqiBZ78to=&ei=8HUkSu69LJ3Ktgebq5zdBg&sa=X&oi=im age_result&resnum=1&ct=image

21 Right of the stomach and is the second largest organ in the body Products of digestion are transferred to the liver for further processing Produces bile Cells contain a number of enzymes that break down toxins or chemicals Stores glucose as glycogen, makes proteins and breaks down toxic substances Liver Picture:

22 Digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder aiding in digestion of fats Modified by addition of a watery bicarbonate as it flows through the bile duct

23 Bile is transferred to the gallbladder It is a sac-like organ that stores and concentrates bile Bile is released into the small intestine through the common bile duct when chyme is present Picture:

24 Lies behind the stomach and has two important functions It produces sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes stomach acid It also produces enzymes that break down macromolecules Pancreatic fluid enters the small intestine through the pancreatic duct Picture:

25 Short Bowel Syndrome Stomach Cancer (Gastric Cancer) Common Sicknesses/Diseases: Acid Reflex Indigestion Diarrhea Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), nocarcinoma_of_the_stomach.jpg

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32 Positive and Negative Pressure Breathing Positive pressure- air pushed in Negative pressure- air drawn in Humans practice negative using manipulation of diaphragm

33 Respiratory System of Mammals vs Birds Mammals use lungs & diaphragm manipulation Birds have system of air sacs that expand and contract to fill lungs Air moves in 1 direction, and is more efficiently exchanged

34 Lung Capacity Terms Tidal volume- Total volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath Vital Capacity- Maximum tidal volume during forced breathing Residual volume- air left in lungs when rest is forcefully exhaled

35 Breathing Control Two main regions- Pons, Medulla Oblongata Negative feedback/ stretching of lungs Detection of carbonic acid leads to deeper breathing

36 Partial Pressures Role in Gas Exchange Partial Pressure- Amount of pressure exerted by a specific part of an atmosphere Same concept as solute diffusion; movement from high to low partial pressure Also applies to capillaries (diffusion into interstitial fluid)

37 Advantages of Respiratory Pigments O2 in solution with blood too inefficient; respiratory pigments compensate Hemocyanin- Blue, found in mollusks and arthropods Hemoglobin- Red. 4 subunits with an iron atom in middle of each. Can carry 4 O2 molecules

38 The Affinity of Hemoglobin for Oxygen Saturation increases as partial pressure increases Greater affinity when less oxygen is available, like in a muscle doing work Bohr shift- change in affinity for O2 due to change in pH

39 Carbon Dioxide Transport 3 modes- Solution with plasma, transport by hemoglobin or *conversion to bicarbonate ions* CO2 becomes carbonic acid, then dissociates into bicarbonate ions and H+ ions Bicarbonate ions piggyback onto red blood cells/ convert back to CO2 in lungs

40 Diving Animal Adaptations More O2 stored in blood Blood rerouted to vital areas Myoglobin- stores 25% O2 in muscles Fermentation operates muscles when O2 depleted

41 Works Cited Campbell, Neil, and Jane Reece. Biology. 6th. San Francisco: Pearson, Sharpe, Shirlie. "Omnivore, Hebivore, Carnivore, What's the Difference?." About.com: Freshwater Aquariums. n. page. Web. 2 May "Mechanical and Chemical Digestion." hellolife. Digestive Health Support Group, 06 April Web. 2 May


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