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Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition and Chapter 42: Respiration

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1 Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition and Chapter 42: Respiration
Mariya Monastyrskaya Jim Gerhart Julia Dovgy

2 Nutritional Requirements of Animals
Three nutrition needs Chemical energy Raw materials Essential nutrients substances that animals cannot make for themselves from any raw materials and has to take it in its pre-made form

3 Four Classes of Essential Nutrients
Amino acids Fatty acids Vitamins Minerals

4 Intracellular vs. Extracellular Digestion
Intracellular (inside cell) Food vacuoles Digestion with lysosomes Extracellular (outside) Hydrolysis For bigger prey

5 Chapter 41 Digestive System

6 Mouth Teeth Pharynx Tongue Epiglottis Salivary Glands Uvula

7 Mechanical Disgestion
Teeth, tongue, and saliva Mastication: Chewing Increases surface area exposed to digestive juices Peristalsis: Contractions Allows food particles to mix with enzymes and gastric juices

8 Teeth Made of tissues varying in density and hardness
3 different types of teeth needed for digestion Incisors Canines Molars

9 Tongue Extremely muscular and mobile Epithelial cells
Located on the floor of the mouth Tasting, chewing and swallowing

10 Salivary Glands Produce saliva in mouth Acini
Mucin Buffers preventing tooth decay Antibacterial agents Salivary amylase Acini Three pairs of salivary glands

11 Pharynx Short and broad muscular tube beginning at the back of the mouth From mouth and nose to esophagus and larynx Permits passage of swallowed solids and liquids into esophagus Divided into three parts Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Nd larynx

12 Epiglottis Flap of tissue preventing food from entering the trachea
Upward during breathing Horizontal when swallowing Food goes down the esophagus

13 Uvula Cone-shaped mass of tissue hanging from the soft palate
Works to make sure food goes down the right tube while swallowing Blocks off airway to the nose

14 Esophagus A muscular tube that passes food from pharynx to the stomach
25 cm long Behind trachea and heart Transport of liquids depends on how body is positioned when swallowing

15 The Stomach

16 Chemical Digestion Begins in the mouth with salivary amylase
Gastric fluid Pepsinogen pepsin peptides Hydrochloric acid- low pH, dissolves minerals, and kills bacteria Mucus protects stomach from the acid and pepsin

17 Formation of Chyme 3-4 hours of stomach digestion Chyme
Peristalsis forces chyme out of the stomach Pyloric sphincter regulates the flow of chyme Then it mixes with secretions form the liver and pancreas in the small intestine

18 Small Intestine 21 ft long Duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum
Continuation of chemical digestion of chyme Glands release enzymes that complete digestion

19 Small Intestine Folds of intestine covered with villi Absorption
The end products of digestion are transferred into the circulatory system Lacteals

20 Large Intestine “Colon” Peristalsis Four major parts of the colon
Sigmoid colon leads into the rectum and anal canal Feces Recovering water Harmless bacteria

21 Liver Right of the stomach and is the second largest organ in the body
Products of digestion are transferred to the liver for further processing Produces bile Cells contain a number of enzymes that break down toxins or chemicals Stores glucose as glycogen, makes proteins and breaks down toxic substances Liver Picture:

22 Bile Digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder aiding in digestion of fats Modified by addition of a watery bicarbonate as it flows through the bile duct

23 Gallbladder Bile is transferred to the gallbladder
It is a sac-like organ that stores and concentrates bile Bile is released into the small intestine through the common bile duct when chyme is present Picture:

24 Pancreas Lies behind the stomach and has two important functions
It produces sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes stomach acid It also produces enzymes that break down macromolecules Pancreatic fluid enters the small intestine through the pancreatic duct Picture:

25 Diseases of the Digestive System:
Common Sicknesses/Diseases: Acid Reflex Indigestion Diarrhea Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Short Bowel Syndrome Stomach Cancer (Gastric Cancer)

26 Chapter 42 Respiration

27 Respiration – Gas exchange
Main idea O2 (from the respiratory medium) in and CO2 out Respiratory surface – the more area, the more diffusion of gases, the better the respiration

28 Advantages and Disadvantages of Water as a Respiratory Medium
Low concentration of oxygen Lower diffusion rate A Simplest kind of diffusion

29 Respiratory Adaptations in animals

30 Respiration by lungs

31 Gas exchange in the lungs

32 Positive and Negative Pressure Breathing
Positive pressure- air pushed in Negative pressure- air drawn in Humans practice negative using manipulation of diaphragm

33 Respiratory System of Mammals vs Birds
Mammals use lungs & diaphragm manipulation Birds have system of air sacs that expand and contract to fill lungs Air moves in 1 direction, and is more efficiently exchanged

34 Lung Capacity Terms Tidal volume- Total volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath Vital Capacity- Maximum tidal volume during forced breathing Residual volume- air left in lungs when rest is forcefully exhaled

35 Breathing Control Two main regions- Pons, Medulla Oblongata
Negative feedback/ stretching of lungs Detection of carbonic acid leads to deeper breathing

36 Partial Pressure’s Role in Gas Exchange
Partial Pressure- Amount of pressure exerted by a specific part of an atmosphere Same concept as solute diffusion; movement from high to low partial pressure Also applies to capillaries (diffusion into interstitial fluid)

37 Advantages of Respiratory Pigments
O2 in solution with blood too inefficient; respiratory pigments compensate Hemocyanin- Blue, found in mollusks and arthropods Hemoglobin- Red. 4 subunits with an iron atom in middle of each. Can carry 4 O2 molecules

38 The Affinity of Hemoglobin for Oxygen
Saturation increases as partial pressure increases Greater affinity when less oxygen is available, like in a muscle doing work Bohr shift- change in affinity for O2 due to change in pH

39 Carbon Dioxide Transport
3 modes- Solution with plasma, transport by hemoglobin or *conversion to bicarbonate ions* CO2 becomes carbonic acid, then dissociates into bicarbonate ions and H+ ions Bicarbonate ions piggyback onto red blood cells/ convert back to CO2 in lungs

40 Diving Animal Adaptations
More O2 stored in blood Blood rerouted to vital areas Myoglobin- stores 25% O2 in muscles Fermentation operates muscles when O2 depleted

41 Works Cited Campbell, Neil, and Jane Reece. Biology. 6th. San Francisco: Pearson, 2002. Sharpe, Shirlie. "Omnivore, Hebivore, Carnivore, What's the Difference?." Freshwater Aquariums. n. page. Web. 2 May "Mechanical and Chemical Digestion." hellolife. Digestive Health Support Group, 06 April Web. 2 May <

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