2KEY TERMSMEMS – three dimensional objects that perform a mechanical function, whose dimensions are between 1 to 100 micrometersNanoparticle – a particle of material at the nanoscaleNanotechnology – a material or structure purposefully manufactured with dimensions between 1 and 100 nanometers to leverage the unique properties it has at that size
3Nanodispersion – the even distribution of nanoscale ingredients in a liquid, gel, or powder Nanoemulsion – two ingredients that don’t mix well; particles around 50 nanometers in diameterNanoencapsulated – creating an outer layer on another material
4Nanosphere – a round particle with nanoscale proportions Nanosomes – microscopic lipospheres that deliver active ingredients deeper into tissues. Much smaller than human skin cells, they encapsulate compounds within microspheres of material similar to skin to reach deeper than standard carriers and boost the effectiveness of active ingredients.
5Hydroxyapatite – a calcium found in the dentin which forms a protective barrier on teeth OLED – An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emit light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes
6Microparticle – has a dimension of 200 nanometers Phospholipids – Phospholipids are fat derivatives in which one fatty acid has been replaced by a phosphate group and one of several nitrogen-containing molecules.Microparticle – has a dimension of 200 nanometers
7UNIT OBJECTIVES Why nanotechnology? Discuss the controversy with nanotechnology and personal care products.Describe how nanotechnology is used in skin products.Name where most personal care products are available that use nanotechnology.
85. List the year that the first nanotechnology product became commercially available. Name nanoscale products used to improve skin.List nanotechnology anti-aging products.Describe how is nanotechnology used in color cosmetics.Discuss how nanotechnology is integrated in deodorant.
9Name ways nanotechnology is used in hair care products. List the benefits of nanotechnology in sunscreen.Describe how nanotechnology is used in toothpaste.Discuss nanotechnology in hair dryers.Describe nano-ceramic products and their benefits.
10List ways nanotechnology is used in shavers. 16. List expected salaries for skilled nanotechnology workers.17.List Oklahoma schools offering courses in nanotechnology
11WHY NANOTECHNOLOGY?Using ingredients at the nanoscale allows personal care products to penetrate deeper into the skin to visibly improve its appearanceThe whole point behind cosmetics is the targeted delivery of vitamins, botanicals, and other active ingredients into the skin. The smaller their size, the better they’re able to penetrate the skin’s outer layer in order to moisturize and soften wrinkles.
12CONTROVERSY WITH NANO IN PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS How deeply can nanoparticles penetrate the skin, whether they can enter the bloodstream, and it so, then what?Some believe using nanoparticles crosses the line in terms of functionOthers are concerned about whether the use of nanoparticles is harmful
13Nanoscale ingredients can penetrate the upper layers of the skin, which improves the appearance of skin by making it plumper and more youthful looking.Nanotechnology makes it possible to use some ingredients by encapsulating them that would otherwise cause irritation on their own.
14Most personal care products leveraging nanotechnology are more widely available in Europe and Asia. It appears that they are more open to using new technology.
15L’Oreal launched the first nano-based product in 1997 L’Oreal launched the first nano-based product in (infallable lipstick)
16Nanoscale titanium dioxide and zinc oxide has a whitening effect by leveraging photonic effects to improve the appearance of skin
18COLOR COSMETICSNanotechnology is used in color cosmetics to deliver ingredients deeper into the skin to hydrate and improve skin texture and to make sunblock transparent
19Nanoscale ingredients help lipstick to last longer, smear less, reflect light, and glow in vibrant colorsNanoscale ingredients help foundations and powders to have a smoother finish and are much lighter and translucent
20M.A.C. PRODUCTSPlushglass lip gloss and volumizer uses nanosomes to deliver phospholipids. It is a super moisturizing formula
21DEODORANTRoll-on deodorant uses nanoemulsion that results in no white residueSome spray deodorants have a nearly gasless approach that is more concentrated which results in a smaller can that lasts as long or longer as a large can
22HAIR CAREHaircare products benefit from nanoparticles because they are able to penetrate the hair shaft, rather than simply coating it
23SUNSCREENUses a nanoscale amount of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide to provide the best protection for your skin from the sun; also referred to as a microparticle
24TOOTHPASTEThere are several toothpastes on the market that decrease teeth sensitivity by utilizing nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite
25HENKEL’S TOOTHPASTE/NANIT ACTIVE Consists of nanomaterials, in conjunction with the saliva in the mouth, encourage the formation of a thin protective layer on the teeth; the tooth remineralizes itself, and as a result tooth sensitivity is reduced.
26HAIR DRYERSMEMS thermopiles monitor the hair’s temperature while drying and help to automatically regulate the heat output to reduce damage to the hair
27NANO-CERAMIC PRODUCTS Nano-ceramic products use ultra-smooth technology that reduces friction, which results in the surface of curling irons and flat irons less likely to catch and break hair and prevent corrosion on the product
28SHAVERSNorelco Cool Skin shaver uses the Nanoflex stainless steel strip in the stationary cutter head, rotating cutter knife, and hair lifter resulting in being corrosion-resistant, strong and formableSome shavers have small OLED displays to illustrate the battery’s remaining life
29Nanotechnology is a young and growing field An estimated two million skilled nanotechnology workers will be needed worldwide by the year 2015 – one million of them in the U.S.Graduates are receiving salary offers up to $55,000 per year with a two-year degreeGraduates with a baccalaureate degree can expect salary offers up to $65,000 per yearStudents who choose to continue their education can expect salary offers of $100,000
30OKLAHOMA SCHOOLS OFFERING COURSES Oklahoma City Community CollegeOklahoma State UniversityOklahoma UniversityTulsa Community CollegeTulsa University
31REFERENCES www.azonano.com Richard Booker and Earl Boysen, Nanotechnology for Dummies, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2005.Marlene Bourne, A Consumer’s Guide to MEMS and Nanotechnology, Scottsdale, AZ, 2007.
32This module is one of a series designed to introduce faculty and high school students to the basic concepts of nanotechnology. Each module includes a PowerPoint presentation, discussion questions, and hands-on activities, when applicable. The series was funded in part by: The National Science Foundation Grant DUE and the Oklahoma Nanotechnology Education Initiative Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the Oklahoma Nanotechnology Education Initiative.