6Bone Function 206 bones in an adult human Function of bones: Provides structure and rigidityProtects soft tissue and organsServes as an attachment for musclesProduces blood cellsServes as a storage area for mineralsCan detoxify the body by removing heavy metals and other foreign elements from the blood
8Anthropologists can use either whole bones or PIECES OF BONE to make the following determinations: An age rangeSexRaceApproximate heightCause of death, disease, or anomaly
9You will be able to: Distinguish between a male and a female skeleton Give an age range after examining unknown remainsDescribe differences in skull features among the three major racial categoriesEstimate height by measuring long bones
10Bones and landmarks to know: Cranial bonesPubic archPatellaCranial SuturesSciatic notchTibiaMandibleHyoidFibulaTeethClavicleMetatarsalsEpiphyseal Line/PlateHumorusTarsalsRadiusVertebral columnUlnaSacrumCarpalsCoccyxMetacarpalsCoxal bonesPhalangesPubic symphysisFemur
13Age At birth, humans have approximately 450 bones Bones fuse as we growThe last bone fuses at ~26 YOAThere are 206 bones in the adult body
14Age Determination Most accurate estimations from: TeethEpiphyses or growth platesPubic symphysisCranial sutures: the three major cranial sutures appear as distinct lines in youth and gradually close from the inside out.Investigators always use an age range because of the variation in people and how they age. The investigator does not want to eliminate any possibilities for identification.
15Age Determination Using Cranial Sutures Sagittal sutureSagittal suture completely closedMales—26 or olderFemale—29 or olderSagittal suture is complete openMale—less than 32Female—less than 35Complete closure of all three major suturesMale—over 35Female—over 50LambodialCoronal
16Age Determination Using Basilar Suture Technically known as the synchondrosis spheno-occipitalis, closes in females as young as 14 and in males as young as 16. If the suture is open, the individual is generally considered 18 or younger.
17Age Determination Using Epiphysis Stage of Unionof Medial ClavicleMaleFemaleNon-union without separate epiphysis21 or younger20 or youngerNon-union with separate epiphysis16-2117-20Partial union17-3017-33Complete union21 or older20 or older
18Age Determination Using Epiphysis Stage of Unionof the Iliac CrestMaleFemaleNon-union without separate epiphysis16 or younger11 or youngerNon-union with separate epiphysis13-1914-15Partial union14-23Complete union17 or older18 or older
19What else can we learn from bones? DNA samples can be collected from bone, teeth, and hair to provide clues to a person’s identity.Scientists may also be able to gain clues as to a person’s past, recent injuries, or the cause of death based on bone fractures and other signs of trauma.Damage from a hammerHealed FracturesGunshot WoundsImages:
20Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company Facial RestorationDetective’s Story:After determining the sex, age, and race of an individual, facial features can be built upon a skull to assist in identification. Erasers are used to make tissue depths at various points on the skull. Clay is used to build around these markers and facial features are molded.Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
21Steps in Facial Reconstruction Model muscles on skullAdd fatty tissue around eyes and lacrimal glandsAdd eyelidsAdd the noseAdd the parotid glandAdd the earsCover all with layers of skinDetail the faceWith a skull:Establish age, sex and racePlot landmarks for tissue thicknessPlot origin and insertion points for musclesPlot landmarks for facial featuresSelect a dataset and mount markers for tissue thicknessMount the eyesKendall/Hunt Publishing Company
22John Emil List “Breeze Knoll” Westfield, NJ Three kids, wife, and motherLate 60s early 70sNov 9th: Vacation staycation
23August 1972, house burnt down – arson unsolved 18 year manhunt "I'm sorry that it all had to end this way but with so little income I just couldn't go on keeping the family together. And I didn't want them to experience poverty." He made the same excuse to Helen's mother, the children's maternal grandmother. He also mentioned that he could not be sure that their souls would remain pure in the future, giving the impression that he believed he had killed them for their own good. To save his own mother from anguish, he had killed her, too.August 1972, house burnt down – arson unsolved18 year manhunt"I'm sorry that it all had to end this way but with so little income I just couldn't go on keeping the family together. And I didn't want them to experience poverty." He made the same excuse to Helen's mother, the children's maternal grandmother. He also mentioned that he could not be sure that their souls would remain pure in the future, giving the impression that he believed he had killed them for their own good. To save his own mother from anguish, he had killed her, too.
25Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company One Final ProductJohn List killed his entire family, moved to a new town and assumed a new identity. Seventeen years later, Frank Bender reconstructed what he believed List would look like. It was shown on America’s Most Wanted, and he was turned in by the viewers almost immediately. . . looking very much like the reconstruction.Check out more about this story on CourtTV’s crime library:Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
26Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company People in the NewsBill Bass is a forensic anthropologist who has assisted law enforcement with hundreds of cases. He established the world’s first and only laboratory devoted to the study of human decomposition at the University of Tennessee’s Anthropology Research Facility.It is known as “the body farm.”Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
28Reading the Remains Watch the video and then answer the questions. What information do they provide for law enforcement agencies?How many skeletons do they have in their collection?What do they learn about a skeleton from each tool?CT Scan –X- ray –Mass spectrometer –Scanning electron microscope –DNA Analysis –
29Forensic Tools & Techniques Watch the video and then answer the questions.What techniques or tools did the scientists use to find the body?What is “disturbed soil”? What might it indicate?How did they narrow down the areas to investigate?Did they find a body?