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PREHISTORIC AND PRIMITIVE MEDICINE Assist.Prof.Dr. Mehmet KARATAŞ Department of History of Medicine and Ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "PREHISTORIC AND PRIMITIVE MEDICINE Assist.Prof.Dr. Mehmet KARATAŞ Department of History of Medicine and Ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 PREHISTORIC AND PRIMITIVE MEDICINE Assist.Prof.Dr. Mehmet KARATAŞ Department of History of Medicine and Ethics

2 Findings/Evidences Human mummy Human mummy Human skeleton Human skeleton Statuary Statuary Wall / stone figures Wall / stone figures

3

4 USA, Kyphosis

5 Harelip/Stroke

6 France, BC

7 Branches of Science Archeology Archeology Paleontology Paleontology Paleopathology Paleopathology Physical anthropology Physical anthropology

8 Findings/Evidences Evidences of infectious diseases, tuberculosis and parasitic infestations have been found in the tissues of mummies in Ancient Egypt Evidences in teeth and bones; osteomyelitis, incorrect fracture union, trauma, spinal tuberculosis, bone tm Decalcification, bone thickness, the bone growth

9 USA, Gold Teeth

10 Findings/Evidences Bone deformities caused by syphilis Bone deformities caused by syphilis Signs of rickets in northern regions Signs of rickets in northern regions Bile/kidney stones, congenital anomalies Bile/kidney stones, congenital anomalies Evidences of arteriosclerosis, pneumonia, stones (kidney), parasites in Ancient Egyptian mummies Evidences of arteriosclerosis, pneumonia, stones (kidney), parasites in Ancient Egyptian mummies

11 Lack of Evidences There isn't enough information about prehistoric medicine There isn't enough information about prehistoric medicine No evidence before 4000 BC No evidence before 4000 BC

12 Spain, Fetus in the womb

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14 Life Span Women live shorter than men Women live shorter than men (more birth, less food) Men live longer than women Men live longer than women

15 Çatalhöyük, BC

16 Aztec Goddess (while giving birth)

17 The Basis of the Medical Practises Diseases: A foreign power or a spirit takes control of the body with magic Diseases: A foreign power or a spirit takes control of the body with magic Supernatural powers Supernatural powers A combination of religion, magic and medical treatment A combination of religion, magic and medical treatment

18 USA, warts (verru)

19 USA, Statue of Elephantiasis

20 Prehistoric Treatment Methods Fighting against diseases with magic Fighting against diseases with magic (Appease the evil spirit or expelling) Herbal treatment; fever reducers, diuretics, analgesics, sedatives, stimulants (curare, opium, cannabis, coca) Herbal treatment; fever reducers, diuretics, analgesics, sedatives, stimulants (curare, opium, cannabis, coca) Massage Massage Water vapor treatment Water vapor treatment Craniotomy, circumcision Craniotomy, circumcision

21 Aztec Steam Bath

22 Trepanation in Neolithic Period in France Expelling the evil spirit Expelling the evil spirit A real surgical intervention A real surgical intervention

23 France, Trepanation

24 USA, Trepanation

25 Trepanation Europe Europe Anatolia Anatolia Caucasus Caucasus Iran, Israel regions Iran, Israel regions North Pacific islands North Pacific islands South America South America

26 Trepanation Tools Flint Flint Volcanic obsidian Volcanic obsidian Animal bones Animal bones

27 Medical Applications Various dances were performed in order to appease or expel the evil spirit Various dances were performed in order to appease or expel the evil spirit Masks, animal skins, drums… were used for this procedure Masks, animal skins, drums… were used for this procedure Absorption (snake bite), bottle drawing, blood flow, smoking Absorption (snake bite), bottle drawing, blood flow, smoking Finding guilty objects (Indians) Finding guilty objects (Indians)

28 Medical Applications Tourniquet to stop the bleeding, pressuring, cauterization Tourniquet to stop the bleeding, pressuring, cauterization Amputation (usually/more for offerings) Amputation (usually/more for offerings) Suture with sewing needles made of bone and tendon Suture with sewing needles made of bone and tendon Reduction of dislocations Reduction of dislocations Fracture treatment (wooden hanger, animal skin) Fracture treatment (wooden hanger, animal skin)

29 Medical Applications Handicapped people were killed/protection Handicapped people were killed/protection Mentally ill people were killed/excluded (Because it was the expression of the evil spirit) Mentally ill people were killed/excluded (Because it was the expression of the evil spirit) The killing of the elderly in order to lighten their loads The killing of the elderly in order to lighten their loads Eskimos left their mother/father on ice Eskimos left their mother/father on ice

30 Medical People Having mental illness is enough to be shaman in Amerindians and Siberians Having mental illness is enough to be shaman in Amerindians and Siberians Medicine, from father to son Medicine, from father to son There also some female physicians There also some female physicians Physicians protect from bad weather conditions, loss of herd, bad harvest and all types of disaster Physicians protect from bad weather conditions, loss of herd, bad harvest and all types of disaster Their social political status is high Their social political status is high Surgeries only do trepanation, blood streaming, wound drainage. They dont do other treatments. Surgeries only do trepanation, blood streaming, wound drainage. They dont do other treatments.

31 Medical People American Indian physician (expert magicians, snake bite, injury, herbal therapy) American Indian physician (expert magicians, snake bite, injury, herbal therapy) Professional magicians in the Congo Professional magicians in the Congo Siberian shaman has drum, hat, mask and he intermediates spirits, predicts future events, says magical words Siberian shaman has drum, hat, mask and he intermediates spirits, predicts future events, says magical words

32 Konuyla İlgili SORU/CEVAP Soru 1: Tarih öncesi dönemdeki tıbbi uygulamalara ait bulgular nereden elde edilmektedir? Cevap 1: Mumyalaşmış cesetler, insan iskeletleri, figürler, duvar resimleri, heykeller Soru 2: Tarih öncesi dönemde hastalıkların tedavisinde kullanılan yöntemler nelerdi? Cevap 2: Büyü, bitkiler, masaj, su buharı, kraniyotomi, sünnet

33 References A. Selim ATAY, İnönü Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, translation A. Selim ATAY, İnönü Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, translation Tolga GÜVEN, Marmara Üniversitesi Tıp Tarihi ve Etik AD ders notları Tolga GÜVEN, Marmara Üniversitesi Tıp Tarihi ve Etik AD ders notları Ali Haydar BAYAT, Tıp Tarihi Ali Haydar BAYAT, Tıp Tarihi Emine ATABEK, Şefik GÖRKEY, Başlangıcından Rönesansa Kadar Tıp Tarihi Emine ATABEK, Şefik GÖRKEY, Başlangıcından Rönesansa Kadar Tıp Tarihi Çağlar Boyu Tıp, Roche Yayınları Çağlar Boyu Tıp, Roche Yayınları


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