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Phylum Chordata A Chordate is an animal that has 4 specific characteristics during their life cycle: 1- Dorsal, hollow nerve cord 2- Notochord – a long.

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Presentation on theme: "Phylum Chordata A Chordate is an animal that has 4 specific characteristics during their life cycle: 1- Dorsal, hollow nerve cord 2- Notochord – a long."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phylum Chordata A Chordate is an animal that has 4 specific characteristics during their life cycle: 1- Dorsal, hollow nerve cord 2- Notochord – a long supporting rod that runs through the body below the nerve cord 3- Post anal tail 4-Pharyngeal pouches (gill slits)

2 1- A Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord This is a sheath of large nerve cells These nerve cells are somewhat like stem cells in they may play an important role in other nerve cells that develop Example: certain motorneurons are affected by the absence of these cells in embryonic development In higher organisms, the actual spinal cord is surrounded by this hollow covering.

3 2- A Notochord The notochord is a strong structural part of the organism It is located dorsally from the gut (endoderm and coelom) It is made of cartilage or bone It is the spine, or vertebral column

4 3- A Post Anal Tail Post means it is located posterior to the anus, or behind the anus It is an extension of the notochord, and made of cartilage or bone

5 4- Pharyngeal pouches These are located at the pharynx, or throat, of a chordate They develop into the gills of fish and juvenile amphibians In aquatic reptiles, birds and mammals, they close during embryonic development and become the throat, while the nasal passageways develop

6 Subphyla of the Phylum Chordata The Nonvertebrates: Sub Phylum Urochordata tunicates or Sea Squirts Sub Phylum Cephalochordata – lancelets These are very simple chordates without spines All are aquatic

7 Subphyla of the Phylum Chordata The Vertebrates Sub Phylum Vertebrata– cartilaginous and bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals These are chordates with spines of cartilage or bony tissue

8 Vocabulary Body temperature control: Ectotherm – animals that rely on behavior and interactions with the environment (Cold-Blooded) Endotherm – animals that generate their own body heat and control temp. from within (Warm-Blooded)

9 Vocabulary Egg to Juvenile Method: Oviparous – Eggs hatch outside the female body Ex: Most Fish Ovoviviparous – Eggs develop inside the female body and the young are live-born Ex: Some Sharks) Viviparous – bear live young that are nourished directly by the mothers body as they develop. Ex: Whales, Otters

10 Vertebrates – Agnathans (jawless fish) Examples: Lamprey; Hagfish Body Plan: snake-like, no scales, no paired fins, no true teeth or jaws Skeleton Type: fibers and cartilage 2 chambered Temperature control: ectotherm Respiration: gills Reproduction: sexually-external/ internal fertilization (oviparous) Importance: lamprey are parasites and hagfish are decomposers that feeding on dead or decaying fish)

11 Vertebrates – Class Chondrichthyes Examples: Sharks, Rays, Skates Chondros (Gk = cartilage) Body Plan: large curved tails, torpedo-shaped body, pointed snout, moveable jaw, placoid (rough as sandpaper)scales Skeleton Type: cartilage 2 chambered Temperature control: e ctotherm Respiration: gills Reproduction: sexually- external/internal fertilization (oviparous/ovoviviparous/some viviparous) Importance: predators in the food chain

12 As the front row of shark teeth are worn out, new teeth are continually replacing them. A shark goes through 20,000 teeth in its lifetime!! A skate is shown in the top picture; a stingray below

13 Vertebrates – Osteicthyes (bony fish) Examples: goldfish, perch, bass, trout Body Plan: lateral line (use this to sense motion of other fish nearby), swim bladder (internal, gas-filled organ that adjusts buoyancy), scales Skeleton Type: hard, calcified tissue called bone 2 chambered Temperature control: ectotherm Respiration: gills Reproduction: sexually- external fertilization (97% are oviparous ) Importance: prey in the food chain, fishing industry

14 Bony Fish Types Saltwater Strictly live in water with dissolved salt content near seawater, about 35 ppt in the open ocean Must regulate the loss of freshwater out of their bodies as natural osmosis and diffusion seek to balance salt concentrations within and surrounding their bodies Ex: marlin, mullet, snapper; flounder Brackish water Require salinities between 35 ppt and freshwater Many marine fry are hatched in brackish water then migrate to open oceans as they mature Ex: fry; sheepshead, croaker Freshwater Strictly live in freshwater Must regulate the increase of freshwater into their bodies as natural osmosis and diffusion seek to balance salt concentrations within and surrounding their bodies Ex: blue catfish; bluegill, hybrid bass

15 More Types of Fish Catadromous These fish hatch in marine waters and then migrate into freshwater to spend adulthood They return to marine waters to spawn Ex: Eels are the most common fish to do this, and the Sargasso Sea, near the southern part of the Atlantic Gyre, is their famous spawning ground Anadromous These hatch in freshwater and then migrate into marine waters to spend adulthood They return to freshwater to spawn, and then usually die Ex: Salmon, shad, smelt and sturgeon are examples.

16 Things you must know: Fish External Anatomy All fins Lateral line Scale Type Fish Internal Anatomy Fish Organ Systems Fish Morphology Body Shape that indicates ecological niche Fish Behaviors Mating, Territoriality, Parenting Identifying and Keying Out Fish What class are they in

17 Vertebrates - Reptilia Examples: snakes, lizards, turtles & tortoises, crocodiles Body Plan: dry, leathery skin, thick scales made of karatin (smooth or rough), terrestrial, amniotic eggs (shell & membrane so egg can develop out of water) Skeleton Type: hard, calcified tissue called bone 3 chambered except crocodiles with 4 chambered Temperature control: ectotherm Respiration: lungs Reproduction: sexually- internal fertilization – eggs laid on land (most oviparous/ some ovoviviparous) Importance: control rat populations, medical use/research, clothing industry

18 Snakes are carnivorous and stretch their jaws to consume their prey whole. Turtles make a nest and lay their eggs on land. The sex of a crocodile is determined by temperature, with males produced at 88 F, and females produced at 80 F and 93 F.


20 Loggerhead Turtle Caretta caretta- one of the largest, most abundant sea turtles

21 Kemps Ridley Turtle Lepidochelys kempii - Endangered, smallest of sea turtles, feeds mostly on crabs

22 Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea - largest turtles on Earth, growing up to seven feet long and exceeding 2,000 pounds

23 Sea Turtles Bodies enclosed in a carapace (top shell) that is fused to their backbone

24 Green turtle is hunted mostly for meat and cartilage for turtle soup TEDS – turtle exclusion device mandated by US government for shrimp nets

25 Cannot retract their head into their shell Legs are modified into flippers for swimming

26 Migrate long distances to reproduce 7-8 species Most live in warm waters


28 Do not have teeth, but have strong jaws

29 Nesting Very little is known why sea turtles nest on some beaches, and not on others Most females return faithfully to the same beach each time they nest

30 Females nest usually at night false crawl – occurs when female turns back and decides not to nest

31 Females lay 100-160 eggs in a nest that hatch about 60 days later

32 Females appear to shed tears as they lay, secreting salt that has accumulated in her body Covers with rear flippers and disguises the nest

33 Incubation & Emergence About 60 days The hotter the sand, the faster they hatch Warmer sand – more females Cooler sand – more males

34 Hatchlings use a temporary, sharp egg- tooth called a caruncle to break open the shell Caruncle then falls off

35 Digging out of the nest is a group effort that takes days Emerge from nest in a group

36 Orient themselves to the brightest horizon Only about 1 in 1000 survives to adulthood

37 Vertebrates – Amphibia (double-life) Examples: frogs, Toads, newts, salamander As larvae usually live in water and as adult live on land Body Plan: moist skin with mucus glands, lack scales/claws, undergo metamorphosis Skeleton Type: hard, calcified tissue called bone 3 chambered Temperature control: ectotherm Respiration: young=gills adult=lungs Reproduction: sexually- external fertilization (oviparous ) or internal ( salamanders) Importance: control insect populations, medical/ pharmaceutical use, food source (frog legs) in India/Asia

38 Frog Metamorphosis

39 Vertebrates – Aves (birds) Examples: chickens, penguins, cardinals, ostrich Body Plan: feathers of protein/keratin (flight/warmth), two legs covered in scales, front limbs modified into wings, thin hollow bones (helpful for flying) Skeleton Type: hollow, calcified tissue called bone 4 chambered Temperature control: endotherm (can generate own body heat) Respiration: lungs, includes passageways of air through air sacs Reproduction: sexually- internal fertilization - oviparous Importance: control insect populations, food source, clothing, bedding, hunting purposes


41 Aquatic Birds have special adaptations… Their feathers are highly resistant to being wetted They usually have higher oil production than other birds from glands at the base of the tail The oil is applied to the feathers during preening Preening is birds grooming activity; they run their beak through their feathers to straighten and comb them During preening oil is spread lightly over feathers to help keep them water resistant Dry feathers Keep birds warm when in aquatic sites Are easier to use for flight (think about a paper airplane that is dry vs. one that is wet!)

42 More special adaptations… Aquatic birds also have special appendages… Feet are webbed for swimming Legs may be longer to wade in water Long toes spread out to distribute weight in mud Beaks are modifications like the following: for grasping wet, slippery prey Hooked tips on eagles The huge baskets of pelicans, spear-like points in herons, cranes and egrets filters of flamingos Beaks modified into bills for duck- and goose-like creatures for sifting worms and arthropods from mud, or for catching fish underwater


44 Class Aves

45 Endotherms – warm-blooded Covered with waterproof feathers to conserve body heat

46 Most can fly Nest on land, many forming huge colonies Have webbed feet http://video.nationalge ex.html

47 Feed mostly at sea Worldwide distribution Only 3% of total bird population High metabolism – eat up to their body weight a day

48 Penguins Native to Southern Hemisphere. Most northerly population lives in Galapagos Islands. The bird most fully adapted for sea life flightless

49 Great swimmers Adapted for cold by storing fat under skin

50 Dense feathers hold in body heat 18 species Most are native to Antarctica

51 Establish breeding colonies, with some mating for life

52 Emperor Penguin Largest 45 inches tall

53 Pelicans Have a pouch below their beak. Most scoop fish from the water

54 Brown Pelican Almost extinct because of pesticide pollution Nest in large, messy, twiggy nests along the coast

55 Brown Pelican plunges in the water to catch their food. If they dont catch it directly, the shock stuns the fish

56 Gulls Largest family of seabirds Predators and scavengers http://video.nationalgeogr

57 1. Shore birds 2. Water birds 3. Sea birds 3 Categories of Marine Birds

58 1.Shorebirds Wading birds Live mostly inland: estuaries and marshes Plovers Sandpipers

59 2.Water Birds Live in coastal and continental interiors, but require water for feeding and nesting Ducks Loon Cormorant

60 3.Sea Birds Live on and around the sea

61 Albatrosses Nest on land, live at sea Wingspans can reach 11 feet. ideo/index.html

62 Arctic Terns Have the greatest migration of any bird. They venture from pole to pole every year- a voyage of 22,000 miles.

63 Hazards for Sea Birds Plastic debris- ingest plastic materials because it fills the stomach, but lacks nutrients and cannot be passed.

64 Oil slicks saturate the feathers, destroying the ability to insulate, let alone be able to fly. The loss of insulation alone can be fatal

65 The greatest danger to seabirds is…. rat and mouse invasions. The mice consume the birds eggs in huge numbers, causing significant bird population declines on some Pacific Islands. cfm?guidAssetId=5EB7F6AC-44B0-4E2E- A4CC- 1C9411BE3ED7&blnFromSearch=1&product code=US

66 Vertebrates - Mammalia Examples: cats, whales, gorillas, zebras, humans Body Plan: mammary glands (produce milk to nourish the young), have hair, breathe air, bear live young Skeleton Type: hard, calcified tissue called bone 4 chambered Temperature control: endotherm (can generate own body heat) Respiration: lungs Reproduction: sexually- internal fertilization (viviparous) Importance: food, hunting, clothing, medical research, pets

67 Mammalia Reproduction Diversity Monotreme – egg-laying mammal; like reptiles except after eggs hatch the young is nourished by mothers milk Only 3 species exist: duckbill platypus, 2 spiny anteaters Marsupial – bear live young that complete their development in an external pouch Kangaroos, koalas, wombats Placental – nutrients, O2, CO2, wastes are exchanged b/n embryo and mother through placenta Elephants, rabbits, humans

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