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By. Ratna Andhika S. Pd. M. Hum.. Is a branch of linguistics which study about the function and patterning of sounds. Is a study of phoneme.

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Presentation on theme: "By. Ratna Andhika S. Pd. M. Hum.. Is a branch of linguistics which study about the function and patterning of sounds. Is a study of phoneme."— Presentation transcript:

1 By. Ratna Andhika S. Pd. M. Hum.

2 Is a branch of linguistics which study about the function and patterning of sounds. Is a study of phoneme

3 Phonetics the study of sound production in any human language. 1. Articulatory How the sound produced by the organ of speech. 2. Acoustics How the sounds are transmitted 3. Auditory How the sounds are received by the llistener. Phonemics the study of sound pattern in a specific language. Concern in a study of phoneme and the sound of language.

4 Is the study of sounds production in any human language. It means that any language in the world has the same system of sound production because human have the same organ of speech. They are: 1. Nose cavity : nose 2. Mouth cavity : lips, teeth, tongue, alveolar, teeth and teeth ridge. 3. Pharyngeal cavity : throat, glotis /epiglotis/, vocal cord 4. Chest cavity: lung

5 Phoneme is the smallest unit of sound which distinguished the meaning. 1. SEGMENTAL PHONEME 1.1.Vowel 1.2. consonant 1.3. diphthong 1.4. triphthong 2. SUPRASEGMENTAL 2.1. pitch (titi nada) 2.2. intonation (intonasi) 2.3. stress (tekanan) 2.4. juncture (jeda)

6 1.1. VOWEL = 12 phonemes The sound that when it is produced, there is no obstruction and the air stream comes through without any block of some points. /i:/; / ɪ /;/ u:/;/ ʊ /; /e/; / ɜ :/;/ ə /; / ɔ :/;/æ/; / ʌ /; */ ɑ :/; / ɒ / * The classification of vowel a. Quality Depends on the quality of timbre/ resonance of chamber. E. g. /i:/ and /i/ b. Quantity Depends on the time / the long of the sounds when it is sounded. e.g. /u/ and /u:/

7 1. The position of the lips - Rounded /o/,/o:/, /u/, /u:/ - Unrounded /a:/, /i/, /i:/ Normal : /i/, /e/, /a/, /3:/ Spreading: /ae/, /i/ 2. The height of the tongue - Close : /i/, /i:/, /u/, /u:/ - Half close : /e/, /ae/, - Open : / /, /o/ - Half open : /a:/, /o:/

8 3. The part of the tongue -front vowel: /o/, /i:/, /e/, ae/ -central vowel : / /, /3:/ -back vowel : /u/, /u:/, / /,/a:/

9 1.2. CONSONANT = 24 phonemes The sound that during the production, the air stream is blocked at some point. /p/pit/b/ bin /t/ tin/d/ din /k/ cut/g/ gut /t ʃ /cheap/d ʒ /jeep /f/fat/v/ vat /θ/thin/ð/Then /s/ sap /z/ zap / ʃ /she/ ʒ /Measure /w/ we/m/ map /l/ lap/n/ nap /r/ run/j/ yes /h/ ham/ŋ/Bang

10 1. The position of the vocal cord a. Voiced consonant When the sound is produced, the vocal cord is vibrated. E. g. /b/, /g/, /d/,/z/ b. Voiceless consonant When the sound is produced, the vocal cord is not vibrated. E. g. /t/, /f/, /s/, /k/

11 2. The place of articulation 1. Bilabial : two lips are exploded e. g. /p/, /b/, /m/ 2. Labiodental : the lip is touching the upper teeth e. g. /v/, /f/ 3. Dental : the lip of the tongue is touching the upper teeth e. g. / /, / / 4. Alveolar : the lip of the tongue is touching the teeth ridge e. g. /t/, /d/, /s/ 5. Post alveolar : the lip of the tongue is touching the back of the teeth ridge e.g. /r/= rain,. 6. Palato alveolar : the blade of the tongue is touching the teeth ridge while the tongue comes up. E. g. /s/, / /,/ /, / / 7. Palatal: the front of the tongue is touching the hard palate e.g. /j/ 8. Velar /soft palate : the back of the tongue is touching the soft palate /k/, /g/ 9. Glottal : is represented the unpronounced sound in a word. E. g. it is all right /it iz lrait/

12 3. The manner of articulation 1. Plosives (meletupkan): /p/, /b/ 2. Affricates (menggosok) : /t ʃ /, /d ʒ /ives 3. Nasal (sengau) : /m/, /n/, /ŋ/ 4. Lateral (pinggir) : /l/ 5. Fricatives (mendesis) : /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/ 6. Semi vowel (semi=setengah) : /w/, /j/

13 bilabi al labiod ental dentalAlveol ar Palato alveol ar Palata l Velarglottal Plosive Africat e Nasal Lateral Fricati ves Semi- vowel p, b m w f, v θ, ð t, d n l s, z, r t ʃ, d ʒ ʒ j k, g ŋ h

14 1.3. DIPHTHONG : are sounds which consist of movement or glide from one vowel to another vowel without interruption. There are two kinds of diphthongs: 1. The centering diphthong are sounds/ diphthongs glide towards the sound / ə / vowel. e. g. /i ə /, /o ə /,/u ə /,/e ə / 2. The closing diphthongs are diphthongs end with a glide towards a closer vowel. a. Ending in /i/: /ei/, /ai/,/oi/ b. Ending in /u/: /au/,/ ə u/

15 The example of diphthong 1. Centering diphthong /fi ə z/- fierce-/i ə / /ske ə /-scare-/e ə / /tu ə /-tour-/u ə / 2. Closing diphthong Time -/taim/-/ai/ Voice-/voiz/-/oi/ Load-/l ə ud/-/ ə u/

16 1.4. TRIPHTHONG : are a glide from one vowel to another vowel then towards the third vowel without interruption. e. g.- ei+ ə =/ei ə /=player /plei ə / - ai+ ə = /ai ə /=fire /fai ə r/ - oi+ ə = /oi ə /= royal /roi ə l

17 1.5. CLUSTER (consonant cluster) The English language permits a number of consonant clusters. They are consonant sounds put together and pronounced as a glide. As in spray /sprei/, flash/flae ʃ / a. Consonant cluster at the initial position: splash, fry, pray, blue, scale etc. /splae ʃ / /frai/ /prei/ /blu:/ /skeal/ b. Consonant cluster at the final position Swept, depth, welsh etc. /swept/ /depθ/ /welS/

18 Phoneme is the smallest unit of sounds which distinguished the meaning. Look at these minimal pairs: Scenesane sign sawnsown Meanmain mine mornmoan Beanbane bine bornbone Keencane kine corncone Feelfail file fallfoal

19 Allophone is the variant of phoneme. A phoneme has variant or different pronunciation called allophones. The difference comes from different phonetic (pengucapany). 1. a. Aspirated : /p/, /t/,/k/ are pronounced aspirated at the initial position. e. g. pike [p h aik], time [t h aim], cat [k h æt] b. unaspirated at the final or the middle position. e. g. cat [k h æt]


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