Presentation on theme: "By. Ratna Andhika S. Pd. M. Hum."— Presentation transcript:
1 By. Ratna Andhika S. Pd. M. Hum. English PhonologyBy. Ratna Andhika S. Pd. M. Hum.
2 What is phonology?Is a branch of linguistics which study about the function and patterning of sounds.Is a study of phoneme
3 PhonologyPhoneticsthe study of sound production in any human language.ArticulatoryHow the sound produced by the organ of speech.2. AcousticsHow the sounds are transmitted3. AuditoryHow the sounds are received by the llistener.Phonemics the study of sound pattern in a specific language. Concern in a study of phoneme and the sound of language.
4 Articulatory Phonetics Is the study of sounds production in any human language. It means that any language in the world has the same system of sound production because human have the same organ of speech. They are:Nose cavity : noseMouth cavity : lips, teeth, tongue, alveolar, teeth and teeth ridge.Pharyngeal cavity : throat, glotis /epiglotis/, vocal cordChest cavity: lung
5 phonemics=phonemePhoneme is the smallest unit of sound which distinguished the meaning.SEGMENTAL PHONEME1.1 .Vowel1.2. consonant1.3. diphthong1.4. triphthong2. SUPRASEGMENTAL2.1. pitch (titi nada)2.2. intonation (intonasi)2.3. stress (tekanan)2.4. juncture (jeda)
6 /i:/; /ɪ/;/ u:/;/ ʊ/; /e/; /ɜ:/;/ ə/; /ɔ:/;/æ/; /ʌ/;*/ɑ:/; /ɒ/ 1.1. VOWEL = 12 phonemesThe sound that when it is produced, there is no obstruction and the air stream comes through without any block of some points./i:/; /ɪ/;/ u:/;/ ʊ/; /e/; /ɜ:/;/ ə/; /ɔ:/;/æ/; /ʌ/;*/ɑ:/; /ɒ/The classification of vowelQualityDepends on the quality of timbre/ resonance of chamber. E. g. /i:/ and /i/b. QuantityDepends on the time / the long of the sounds when it is sounded. e.g. /u/ and /u:/
7 The criteria of vowel Spreading: /ae/, /i/ 2. The height of the tongue 1. The position of the lipsRounded /o/,/o:/, /u/, /u:/Unrounded /a:/, /i/, /i:/Normal : /i/, /e/, /a/, /3:/Spreading: /ae/, /i/2. The height of the tongueClose : /i/, /i:/, /u/, /u:/Half close : /e/, /ae/,Open : / /, /o/Half open : /a:/, /o:/
8 3. The part of the tongue -front vowel: /o/, /i:/, /e/, ae/ -central vowel : / /, /3:/ -back vowel : /u/, /u:/, / /,/a:/
9 1.2. CONSONANT = 24 phonemesThe sound that during the production, the air stream is blocked at some point./p/pit /b/ bin/t/ tin /d/ din/k/ cut /g/ gut/tʃ/cheap /dʒ/jeep/f/fat /v/ vat/θ/thin /ð/Then/s/ sap /z/ zap/ʃ/she /ʒ/Measure/w/ we /m/ map/l/ lap /n/ nap/r/ run /j/ yes/h/ ham /ŋ/Bang
10 Consonant clasification 1. The position of the vocal cordVoiced consonantWhen the sound is produced, the vocal cord is vibrated.E. g. /b/, /g/, /d/,/z/b. Voiceless consonantWhen the sound is produced, the vocal cord is not vibrated. E. g. /t/, /f/, /s/, /k/
11 2. The place of articulation 1. Bilabial : two lips are exploded e. g 2. The place of articulation 1. Bilabial : two lips are exploded e. g. /p/, /b/, /m/ 2. Labiodental : the lip is touching the upper teeth e. g. /v/, /f/ 3. Dental : the lip of the tongue is touching the upper teeth e. g. / /, / / 4. Alveolar : the lip of the tongue is touching the teeth ridge e. g. /t/, /d/, /s/ 5. Post alveolar : the lip of the tongue is touching the back of the teeth ridge e.g. /r/= rain,. 6. Palato alveolar : the blade of the tongue is touching the teeth ridge while the tongue comes up. E. g. /s/, / /,/ /, / / 7. Palatal: the front of the tongue is touching the hard palate e.g. /j/ 8. Velar /soft palate : the back of the tongue is touching the soft palate /k/, /g/ 9. Glottal : is represented the unpronounced sound in a word. E. g. it is all right /it iz lrait/
13 Diagram of the consonant clasification bilabiallabiodentaldentalAlveolarPalato alveolarPalatalVelarglottalPlosiveAfricateNasalLateralFricativesSemi-vowelp, bmwf, vθ, ðt, dnls, z, rtʃ, dʒʒjk, gŋh
14 Ending in /i/: /ei/, /ai/,/oi/ Ending in /u/: /au/,/əu/ 1.3. DIPHTHONG : are sounds which consist of movement or glide from one vowel to another vowel without interruption.There are two kinds of diphthongs:The centering diphthong are sounds/ diphthongs glide towards the sound / ə/ vowel. e. g. /iə/, /oə/,/uə/,/eə/The closing diphthongs are diphthongs end with a glide towards a closer vowel.Ending in /i/: /ei/, /ai/,/oi/Ending in /u/: /au/,/əu/ə
15 1. Centering diphthong /skeə/-scare-/eə/ /tuə/-tour-/uə/ The example of diphthong1. Centering diphthong/fiəz/- fierce-/iə//skeə/-scare-/eə//tuə/-tour-/uə/2. Closing diphthongTime -/taim/-/ai/Voice-/voiz/-/oi/Load-/ləud/-/əu/
16 e. g.- ei+ ə =/eiə/=player /pleiə/ 1.4. TRIPHTHONG : are a glide from one vowel to another vowel then towards the third vowel without interruption.e. g.- ei+ ə =/eiə/=player /pleiə/- ai+ə = /aiə/=fire /faiər/- oi+ə = /oiə/= royal /roiəl
17 b. Consonant cluster at the final position Swept, depth, welsh etc. 1.5. CLUSTER (consonant cluster)The English language permits a number of consonant clusters. They are consonant sounds put together and pronounced as a glide. As in spray /sprei/, flash/flaeʃ/a. Consonant cluster at the initial position:splash, fry, pray, blue, scale etc./splaeʃ/ /frai/ /prei/ /blu:/ /skeal/b. Consonant cluster at the final positionSwept, depth, welsh etc./swept/ /depθ/ /welS/
18 Phoneme v.s AllophonePhoneme is the smallest unit of sounds which distinguished the meaning. Look at these minimal pairs:Scene sane sign sawn sownMean main mine morn moanBean bane bine born boneKeen cane kine corn coneFeel fail file fall foal
19 Allophone is the variant of phoneme Allophone is the variant of phoneme. A phoneme has variant or different pronunciation called allophones. The difference comes from different phonetic (pengucapany).a. Aspirated : /p/, /t/,/k/ are pronounced ‘aspirated’ at the initial position.e. g. pike [phaik], time [thaim], cat [khæt]b. unaspirated at the final or the middle position.e. g. cat [khæt]
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