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Ch 39 Nutrition, Digestion and absoption AP lecture.

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2 Ch 39 Nutrition, Digestion and absoption AP lecture

3 Recap Heterotrophic Autotrophic Catabolism Glycogen

4 What do animals need to live? O2O2 food ATP Animals make energy using: –food –oxygen Animals build bodies using: –food for raw materials amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides –ATP energy for synthesis

5 Teeth Carnivore – sharp ripping teeth – canines Herbivore – wide grinding teeth – molars Omnivore – both kinds of teeth

6 Essential nutrients Can not be synthesized in the body but are absolutely required –Macronutrients Required in large amounts –Micronutrients Required in small amounts *amino acids*

7 Essential minerals Chemical element required in the diet –Calcium (macronutrient), Iron (micronutrient), and potassium

8 Essential Vitamins Carbon compounds Water soluble –Eliminated in the urine Fat soluble –Build up in the body fat and become toxic to the liver Vitamin D –Helps absorb calcium

9 Nutrient Deficiencies Malnutrition –Lack of essential nutrients in the diet Can lead to diseases and organ failure

10 Digestive System Function: break down large molecules into smaller, absorbable molecules *monomers and hydrolysis* Tubular gut, two openings- one at each end

11 Digestive systems Everybodys got one!

12 Length of digestive system Carnivores – short digestive system protein easier to digest than cellulose Herbivores & omnivores – long digestive system more time to digest cellulose symbiotic bacteria in gut

13 Overview of food flow –Mouth –Pharynx –Esophagus –Stomach –Small intestine –Large intestine –Rectum


15 Mouth –Digestion starts –Chewing and amylase- starch digesting enzyme –Bolus- ball of food –Swallowing is an autonomic reflex –Sphincter at the base of the esophagus –Epiglottis covers the trachea to make sure food does not pass into the windpipe


17 Stomach –Holds and breaks up food –Starts protein digestion –Pepsinogen is inactive so it will not harm the stomach tissue lining –Pepsin is activated by HCl secreted by the stomach Helps with digestion

18 –Stomach pH is around 1 –Can cause ulcers –Chyme- partly digested food, acid and enzymes –Smooth muscle pushed chyme into the small intestines through a pyloric sphincter

19 stomach kills germs store food break up food digest proteins cardiac sphincter pyloric sphincter mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs

20 Small intestine –Digestion of carbohydrates and proteins continues –Digestion of fat –Absorbs nutrients Duodenum – most digestion Jejunum- absorb Ileum – absorb

21 * Accessory organs* Liver – makes and secretes bile which is then stored in the gall bladder (then to duodenum) blood from the stomach goes to the liver to be filtered of toxins and to build macromolecules Pancreas – endocrine and exocrine gland digestive juices, glucagon and insulin

22 small intestines breakdown all foods - proteins - starch - fats - nucleic acids absorb nutrients stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch liver produces bile - stored in gall bladder break up fats mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs

23 Large intestine (a.k.a) colon –Absorbs water and builds feces *dehydration from diarrhea*

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