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Your Inner Fish By: Neil Shubin From common parts came a very unique construction. A guide to… Made by: Declan Duggan.

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Presentation on theme: "Your Inner Fish By: Neil Shubin From common parts came a very unique construction. A guide to… Made by: Declan Duggan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Your Inner Fish By: Neil Shubin From common parts came a very unique construction. A guide to… Made by: Declan Duggan

2 Chapter 1: Finding Your Inner Fish Shubin and his team were searching for the link between animals that lived in water and those that could survive on land After narrowing down the critical time-period to roughly 375 million years ago, the paleontologists determined that best places to look would be sedimentary rocks on the beds of ancient streams Their search took them to the Canadian Arctic, which is where they thought they had the best chance of finding ancient streams from the Devonian Period

3 Chapter 1: Finding Your Inner Fish In 2004, the team found what turned out to be the perfect intermediate between fish and land-living animals, and named it Tiktaalik Tiktaalik had scales on its back and fins with fin webbing like fish, but also had a neck and a flat head with eyes on the top It also had bones that correspond to the upper arm, forearm, and the wrist joints

4 Tiktaalik Specialized fins with bones Neck Flat head with eyes on the top

5 Chapter 2: Getting a Grip One of the key characeristics that made Tiktaalik different was that it had a joint at the end of its fins which had spaces for four other bones, which is essentially the origin of the human wrist Tiktaalik had the capability to do pushups because of its unique bone structure Tiktaalik also displayed the beginnings of the ball and socket joints

6 Chapter 2: Getting a Grip Tiktaaliks body structure, with its flat head and eye location, as well as its limbs which allowed it to crawl along on its belly, also enabled it to live primarily in shallow streams where bigger predators would not be as much of a disturbance The origins of our legs and arms are not just related to Tiktaalik, but rather many other fish including Eusthenopteron

7 Chapter 2: Getting a Grip The first examples of fingers were found in amphibians like Icanthostega Full feature of wrist and ankle bones found in 250 million year old reptiles Our ability to walk on our hind legs is due to the fact that our elbows and knees face opposite directions – a trait we share with all mammals

8 Chapter 3: Handy Genes Sonic Hedgehog Gene: – Gene present in all limbed animals that is active in the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), which essentially guides the development of our fingers and makes the pinky side different from our thumb side. – Not only does knowing this help us understand certain mutations, but it gives insight into how closely we are related with other forms of life as scientists can look for the same gene in every other animal with fingers

9 Chapter 4: Teeth Everywhere Why teeth? – Structure of teeth give paleontologists clues about an organisms diet and lifestyle – Often the best preserves parts of fossils due to their hardness – Development of teeth changed the competitive landscape

10 Chapter 4: Teeth Everywhere Teeth develop by an interaction of two layers of tissue in developing skin – Layers approach, cells then divide, layers change their shapes and produce proteins – Same process as with all structure that develop within the skin (hair, scales, feathers, sweat and mammary glands)

11 Illustration © Kalliopi Monoyios

12 Chapter 5: Getting Ahead Every bone in our head traces back to either a rod, a plate, or a block Within our skulls, there are 12 nerves known as cranial nerves which supply the muscles that help us bite, talk, or move our eyes/head These 12 nerves originate in one of four gill arches in the developing embryo – The same structures these nerves supply originate in one of the same arch

13 Chapter 5: Getting Ahead 1st arch: Trigeminal nerve originates in arch one, which corresponds with the jaw and ears 2 nd arch: Facial nerve 3 rd Arch: Glossopharyngeal nerve 4 th Arch: Vagus nerve Each nerves complex path relate to the fact that they supply structures that originate from their respective arches

14 Illustration © Kalliopi Monoyios

15 Chapter 5: Getting Ahead Amphioxus: a 530 million year old worm with a nerve chord along its back and a notochord parallel to this, but without a backbone – Humans also have notochords, but ours breaks up and becomes part of the discs which constitute our vertebrae – When a disc is ruptured, a jelly-like substance which was once in the notochord can pinch nerves – This is part of our relationship with ancient organisms

16 Amphioxus Illustration @ Kalliopi Monoyios

17 Chapter 6: The Best-Laid (Body) Plans The work of Karl Ernst von Baer found that all organs in any animal originate in one of three germ layers in a developing embryo – Ectoderm: forms much of the outer part of the body and the nervous system – Endoderm: forms many of the inner structures of the body which includes the digestive tract and other glands associated with it – Mesoderm: forms tissue in between the guts and skin, including our skeleton and muscles

18 Illustration © Kalliopi Monoyios

19 Chapter 6: The Best-Laid (Body) Plans Hilde Mangold: Scientists who discovered a small patch of tissue that was able to direct other cells to form an entire body plan, named the Organizer – What makes up the Organizer? Richard Harland (UC-Berkeley) discovered a gene, which he named noggin that does exactly what the Organizer should after he injected it into an embryo and found it developed two body axes

20 Chapter 6: The Best-Laid (Body) Plans Mark Martindale and John Finnerty conducted an experiment to test what would happen if the body-building gene from an animal with a complex body plan (a frog) was switched with one from a sea anemone. – The result was that the frog developed extra back structures, as if it were injected with its own Noggin gene

21 Chapter 7: Adventures in Bodybuilding 1947: Australian mining geologist Reginald Sprigg discovers what turns out to be the earliest bodies within fossils in South Australia, which turned out to be roughly 600 millions years old What allowed bodies to arise? – Biological glue between cells which make up the structure of different parts of the body – The ability of cells to communicate with each other using words written as molecules – Amount of oxygen in the atmosphere

22 Chapter 7: Adventures in Bodybuilding Structure of bones: – Hydroxyapatite: strong when compressed, less strong when twisted or bent – Collagen: strong when pulled, collapses when pushed together – Proteoglycan: shaped like a 3D brush with a long stem and lots of little branches which attract water, causing it to swell up and become like gelatin

23 How to Isolate DNA 1.Take tissue from plant or animal 2.Add salt and water 3.Put into blender to mash up 4.Add dish soap to break up the membranes which surround the cells 5.Add meat tenderizer to break up the proteins which surround the DNA 6.Add rubbing alcohol The result should give two distinct layers of liquids with clear alcohol on the top. The DNA should attract to the alcohol, and goopy white blob should eventually form

24 Chapter 8: Making Scents Mammals have over a thousand genes involved with the sense of smell – The genes involved with the sense of smell are present in every cell, but only active in the nasal area However, humans have over three hundred genes involved with our sense of smell which are completely useless – They are used by other mammals – It seems humans are part of a group of mammals who have traded smell for vision through the years In 1991, Linda Buck and Richard Axel discovered the large family of genes that ultimately give us our sense of smell – This adds to the understanding of our history as fish, amphibians, and mammals

25 Chapter 8: Making Scents Buck and Axel Experiment – Created a hypothesis regarding what the genes that make odor receptors might have looked like – They found that genes that had the characteristic structure of the receptor they fit into – Found that all the genes were only active in tissues involving the sense of smell, and also found a very large number of these genes

26 Chapter 8: Making Scents Molecules from a flower are sensed by receptors in the nose, which send a signal to the brain. Each smell has is made up of different molecules which attach to different receptors in the nose. Illustration © Kalliopi Monoyios

27 Chapter 9: Vision Our eyes, along with all of the parts that make up the eye, have histories as organs – As we trace back the history of each of these parts in organs, we see how many other forms of life we are related to Our eyes are similar to cameras – Light from outside enters, focused on screen at back of eyeball – Light passes through cornea, and the amount of light is controlled by the iris – Light then passes through the lens which focuses image – Screen where light is projected is known as the retina

28 Chapter 9: Vision Our camera-like eye is common among all creatures with a skull Every animal uses the same type of light capturing molecule, known as an opsin – We can trace the history of the eye by looking at differences in the structure of the opsins It seems that our color vision relates to the changes in the flora of the earth – Color vision would help primates distinguish between fruit and leaves to help them pick the most nutritious – It is estimated that our color vision arose around 55 million years ago

29 Chapter 9: Vision In the early 1900s, Mildred Hodge discovered a gene which controlled the development of our eyes, called the eyeless gene Eyes: From primitive light- capturing devices to our own camera-like lens Illustration © Kalliopi Monoyios

30 Chapter 10: Ears The same gill arch that forms part of the jaw of a reptile forms ear bones in mammals – this is a significant relationship between mammals and reptiles Ears show the transition from reptiles to mammals, or in other words, from water to land The jaw bones of reptiles are what form the three middle ears bones of mammals – The origin of the stapes was a transformation from a jaw support bone to an ear bone and occurred when fish started to walk on land – The malleus and the incus developed from the bones at the back of a reptile jaw and signified the origin of mammals

31 Chapter 10: Ears Our inner ear has three functions: – To aid in hearing – To tell us which way our head is tilted – To tell us how fast our head is accelerating or stopping Our inner ear is the most ancient part, and reveals the most about our connection with the rest of life Illustration © Kalliopi Monoyios

32 Chapter 11: The Meaning of it All Biological Law of Everything – Everything living thing on this planet had parents – Descent with modification Each of us has our own lineage which can be identified by biological features Why history makes us sick: – Humans are really a recipe for problems – take the body plan of a fish, dress it up to be a mammal, contort until it can walk on two legs, talks, thinks, and can control its fingers, and there is a lot of areas for concern

33 Chapter 11: The Meaning of it All Obesity – James Neel developed a hypothesis stating that humans were adapted to a boom-bust existence – He proposed that our bodies could store energy to be used later, which would work well in a boom-bust existence – However, since rich foods are available 24/7, obesity ensues as the excess energy is stored as fat This leads to diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease

34 Chapter 11: The Meaning of it All Our sedentary lifestyles lead to another set of problems – Pooling of the blood due to lack of circulation caused by walking, and the valves fail – Hemorrhoids from too much time sitting down

35 Sources Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Fish: a Journey into the 3.5-billion-year History of the Human Body. New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print. "Your Inner Fish: Teaching Tools." Tiktaalik Roseae: Home. Web. 29 Sept. 2011..

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