2Australopiths Best known group of African hominid species Two groups Australopithecus (gracile forms)Paranthropus (robust forms)Lived from myaThey are all clearly bipedalRelatively small brainsThey have large teeth, particularly the back teeth, with thick to very thick enamel on molars.
3Australopithecus afarensis Donald Johanson and his team (including Tim White) discovered Lucy in the Afar region of EthiopiaDiscovered in 1974First skeleton of an Early hominid until last year
4Showed bipedalism preceded encephalization But not completely the same as usCranial capacity 350cc3.2 myaShowed bipedalism preceded encephalization
5Mary Leakey discovers Laetoli Footprints Shows 54 individuals walking uprightRadioactive dating places these footprints at 3.59 to 3.75mya
6Paranthropus boisei 2.6 – 1.8 mya Huge jaw Large molars Large sagital crestCranial capacity 530ccFirst discovered by anthropologist Mary Leakey on July 17, 1959, at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania,
7Paranthropus (Robust Australopiths) Many different species and fossils from all over AfricaLarge, deep, lower jaws.Large molarsSagital crestWhat do think this means?
9Pre-Australopiths (7.0-4.4 mya) SahelanthropusFound in Chad at Toros-Menalla 2001Faunal Dating places it around 7 myaSmall Braincase no larger than modern chimpanzeeSmall vertical face is hominid like featureWhat ape like features do you see?
10Ardipithecus ramidusDiscovered in 1994 by Tim White (U.C. Berkley) and Lovejoy (Kent State)In 1994 just found portion of jaw and a few teethFound in Middle Awash of EthiopiaComplete find published in Science October 2009Mostly complete
11BipedalWouldn’t be able to run long distancesGrasping toeSmall brainSmall caninesCranial capacity ccDated Volcanic Ash above and below fossils4.4 mya