Presentation on theme: "Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity Dr. Ahmed Al Mokhatieb
2 is exemplified by brief, sharp, well-localized pain in response to thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical stimuli that cannot be ascribed toany other form of dental defect or pathologyPulpal pain is usually more prolonged,dull, aching, and poorly localized and usually lasts longer than the applied stimulus.
3 Up to 30% of adults have dentin hypersensitivity at some period of their lives Current techniques for treatment may be only transient in nature and results are not alwayspredictable
4 Two chief methods of treatment of dentin hypersensitivity 1 tubular occlusion2blockage of nerve activity
5 A differential diagnosis needs to be accomplished before any treatment because many symptoms are common to a variety of causes
6 Items to be considered: the pain—sharp, dull, or throbbinghow many teeth and their locationwhich part of the tooth elicits the painthe intensity of the pain
7 Clinical and radiographic examination is necessary to elucidate the cause
8 The following questions need to be asked Can the pain be localized to one tooth or area of the tooth?Is the area sensitive to a moderate flow of air from an air water syringe?Is the tooth sensitive to percussion? Is there sensitivity to biting pressure or on release?
9 The following questions need to be asked What is the extent of the pain after the stimuli is removed?Do radiographs demonstrate caries or periapical pathology?Is the dentin exposed as a result of recession and are there any cracked cusps, open margins, or occlusal hyperfunction?
10 MECHANISMThere are regional differences in dentin sensitivityFreshly exposed dentin in the coronal part of the tooth is more sensitive than cervical dentin
11 Hypersensitive dentin, however, is found most often in the cervical area The sensitivity of dentin has a direct correlation with the size and patency of the dentinal tubulesAbsi and colleagues discovered that hypersensitive teeth have an increased number of patent tubules and wider tubules than those of no sensitive teeth
12 CAUSESThere is no principal cause.The loss of enamel and removal of cementum from the root with exposure of dentin, however, is a major contributing factor
13 CAUSESCauses include gingival recession due to root prominence and thin overlying mucosa, dehiscences and fenestrations, frenum pulls, and orthodontic movement, which causes a root to be moved outside its alveolar housing
14 Loss of enamel may be a consequence of attrition, erosion, abrasion, and abfraction. The loss of enamel, however, is usually a combination of two or more of these factors
15 BLEACHINGThe sensitivity that occurs with bleaching is a result of a reversible pulpitis that is caused by the flow of dentinal fluid from osmolarity changes in the pulpThese changes occur when the bleaching material rapidly penetrates enamel and dentin to the pulp. Hydrogen peroxide and urea penetrate through integral enamel, through the dentin, and into the pulp in 5 to 10 minutes
16 BLEACHINGMost often, the sensitivity is generalizedThe estimates of tooth hypersensitivity caused by whitening are usually approximately 60%Usually higher concentrations of peroxide results in a greater degree of sensitivity.The addition of low levels of potassium nitrate to tray bleaches has reduced but not eradicated sensitivity.
17 PERIODONTAL TREATMENT Unfortunately, patient discomfort often occurs whileundergoing periodontal treatment. Postoperative pain and dentin hypersensitivityare often occurrences. Some patients find both the nonsurgical and surgical treatmentpainful. It has been reported that periodontal therapy can be an important source ofdentin hypersensitivity.
18 TREATMENT—SELF-APPLIED AND OFFICE SUPPLIED Self-applied treatments to reduce sensitivity consist of materials that occlude dentinaltubules, coagulate or precipitate tubular fluids, encourage secondary dentin formation,or obstruct pulpal neural response. Desensitizing toothpastes that contain potassiumsalts, either nitrates or chlorides, are believed to act by depolarizing the nervesurrounding the odontoblastic process, resulting in interference of transmission.Usually
19 LASER TREATMENTThe treatment seems to be only transient, however, and the sensitivity returns intime. In order for a laser to actually alter the dentin surface, it has to melt and resolidifythe surface. This effectively closes the dentinal tubules. This does not occur. It isfelt that laser treatment reduces sensitivity by coagulation of protein and withoutaltering the surface of the dentin. Dicalcium phosphate-bioglass in combinationwith Nd:YAG laser treatment has sealed dentin tubules to a depth of 10 mm, anddicalcium phosphate-bioglass plus 30% phosphoric acid occluded exposed tubulesup to 60 mm.
20 FLUORIDE TREATMENTFluorides reduce the permeability of dentin probably by precipitationof insoluble calcium fluoride inside the dentinal tubules and reduce sensitivity.PRO-ARGINThis material was able to plug and seal exposed dental tubules todecrease sensitivity.OXALATEPashley and Galloway38 felt that using potassium oxalate resulted in calcium oxalatecrystals, occluding the tubules
21 CASEIN PHOSPHOPEPTIDE–AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE The peptides present in Recaldent become bound to the dentin surface and this causes a mineral deposit formation in the dentin surface resulting in decreased opening of the dentinal tubulesCALCIUM PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATIONChiang and colleagues44 found a mesoporous silica biomaterial containing nanosizedcalcium oxide particles mixed with 30% phosphoric acid can occlude dentinal tubulesand considerably reduce dentin permeability even in the presence of pulpal pressure.
22 CARBONATE HYDROXYAPATITE NANOCRYSTALS AND SODIUM FLUORIDE/POTASSIUM NITRATE DENTIFRICESynthetic hydroxyapatite (carbonate hydroxyapatite) biomimetic nanocrystals,introduced recently, have demonstrated the ability to remineralize altered enamelsurfaces and close dentinal tubules.There is a progressive closing of the dentinaltubules in several minutes and subsequently a remineralized layer forms in a fewhours.GLUTARALDEHYDEbased on aqueous glutaraldehyde, which occludes the tubules by cross-linking of dentinalproteins.
23 SEAL & PROTECT AND ADMIRA PROTECT The material is applied to a slightly moist surface, air dried, and light cured and then a second application is applied and light cured for 10 seconds.PREHYBRIDIZED DENTINPrehybridized dentin or immediate dentin sealing has been suggested to make thedentin less sensitive while a restoration is fabricated in the laboratory. Becausea hybrid layer is created immediately after preparation, teeth treated with the immediatedentin sealing technique were better able to tolerate thermal and functional loadsin comparison to teeth that were sealed when the restorations were placed.51VARNISH