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KEY TERMS Argument: A conclusion together with the premises that support it. Premise: A reason offered as support for another claim. Conclusion: A claim.

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Presentation on theme: "KEY TERMS Argument: A conclusion together with the premises that support it. Premise: A reason offered as support for another claim. Conclusion: A claim."— Presentation transcript:

1 KEY TERMS Argument: A conclusion together with the premises that support it. Premise: A reason offered as support for another claim. Conclusion: A claim that is supported by a premise. Valid: An argument whose premises logically lead to its conclusion. Unsound: An argument that has at least one false premise.

2 KEY TERMS Induction A process of reasoning in which we use small, specific examples or observation to reach a BIG, general rule, conclusion or theory

3 KEY TERMS Deduction A process of reasoning in which we use BIG, general rules or theories to reach a conclusion about a specific observation or instances.

4 Inductive or Deductive 1. The Giants have lost their last seven games. Thus, they will probably lose their next game. 2. If you brush and floss your teeth daily then you will have fewer cavities. Marie brushes and flosses her teeth daily. Thus, she will have fewer cavities. 3. Jones will play tennis today if Smith plays. Jones will not play tennis today. Therefore, Smith will not play out of 5 times I beat Corey at pool and I'm going to play him tomorrow. So, I'll very likely win. 5. No man has ever gotten pregnant. Therefore, no man ever will get pregnant.

5 Inductive or Deductive 1.The Giants have lost … Inductive argument – uses 7 specific examples to reach a bigger conclusion 2. If you brush and floss your teeth … Deductive argument – states the broadly accepted research and reaches a specific conclusin 3. Jones will play tennis today if … Deductive argument –give the overarching rule that governs the behavior to predict a specific outcome 4. 4 out of 5 times I beat Corey… Inductive argument – uses specific examples to predict the conclusion 5. No man has ever gotten pregnant… Inductive argument – the conclusion is a BIG, overarching rule based on specific experiences to date.

6 KEY TERMS Syllogism: The simplest sequence of logical premises and conclusions, consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. The typical Syllogism looks like : Argument FormSyllogism Major premise:All A is B;All mammals are warm-blooded. Minor premise:All C is A;All black dogs are mammals. Conclusion:therefore all C is B Therefore, all black dogs are warm- blooded.

7 KEY TERMS Argument form: breaking down the sentences of an argument by substituting LETTERS for KEY TERMS The typical argument form looks like : Argument FormSyllogism Major premise:All A is B;All mammals are warm-blooded. Minor premise:All C is A;All black dogs are mammals. Conclusion:therefore all C is B Therefore, all black dogs are warm- blooded.

8 KEY TERMS In the Argument form we put 'H' for 'human' and 'humans', 'M' for 'mortal', and 'S' for 'Socrates'; what results is the form of the original argument. Argument FormSyllogism Major premise:All H are M; All humans are mortal. Minor premise:S is H Socrates is human. Conclusion:therefore all S is M Therefore, Socrates is mortal

9 KEY TERMS What is the argument form to the syllogism below? Argument FormSyllogism Major premise:All mammals are warm-blooded. Minor premise:All black dogs are mammals. Conclusion:Therefore, all black dogs are warm- blooded.

10 KEY TERMS What is the argument form to the syllogism below? Argument FormSyllogism Major premise:All M are WAll mammals are warm-blooded. Minor premise:All B are MAll black dogs are mammals. Conclusion:Therefore; all B are W Therefore, all black dogs are warm- blooded.


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