2 What is a Dental Assistant? A dental assistant is an individual who, without a license, may perform basic supportive dental procedures, as authorized by Section … under the supervision of a licensed dentist."Basic supportive dental procedures" are those procedures that have technically elementary characteristics, are completely reversible, and are unlikely to precipitate potentially hazardous conditions for the patient being treated.The supervising licensed dentist shall be responsible for determining the competency of the dental assistant to perform the basic supportive dental procedures, as authorized by Section
3 How can I be a Dental Assistant? If employed over 120 daysA board-approved course in the Dental Practice Act.A board-approved course in infection control.A course in basic life support offered by an instructor
4 What am I legally able to do? Under the general supervision of a supervising licensed dentist:Extra-oral duties or procedures specified by the supervising licensed dentist, provided that these duties or procedures meet the definition of a basic supportive procedure specified in Section 1750.Under the direct supervision of a supervising licensed dentist:Place and remove rubber dams or other isolation devices.Place, wedge, and remove matrices for restorative procedures.Cure restorative or orthodontic materials in operative site with a light-curing device.Remove periodontal dressings.
5 What am I not allowed to do? Diagnosis and comprehensive treatment planning.Placing, finishing, or removing permanent restorations.Surgery or cutting on hard and soft tissue including, but not limited to, the removal of teeth and the cutting and suturing of soft tissue.Prescribing medication.
6 Why Is Infection Control Important in Dentistry? Both patients and dental health care personnel (DHCP) can be exposed to pathogensContact with blood, oral and respiratory secretions, and contaminated equipment occursProper procedures can prevent transmission of infections among patients and DHCPDuring the provision of dental treatment, both patients and dental health care personnel (DHCP) can be exposed to pathogens through contact with blood, oral and respiratory secretions, and contaminated equipment.Following recommended infection control procedures can prevent transmission of infectious organisms among patients and dental health care personnel.
7 Modes of Transmission Direct contact with blood or body fluids Indirect contact with a contaminated instrument or surfaceContact of mucosa of the eyes, nose, or mouth with droplets or spatterInhalation of airborne microorganismsDental patients and DHCP may be exposed to a variety of disease-causing microorganisms that are present in the mouth and respiratory tract. These organisms may be transmitted in dental settings through several routes, including:Intact or non-intact skin in direct contact with blood, oral fluids, or other potentially infectious patient materials.Indirect contact with a contaminated object (e.g., instruments, operatory equipment, or environmental surfaces).Contact of mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, or mouth with droplets (e.g., spatter) containing microorganisms generated (e.g., coughing, sneezing, talking) from an infected person and propelled a short distance.Inhalation of airborne microorganisms that can remain suspended in the air for long periods of time.
8 Standard Precautions Apply to all patients Integrate and expand Universal Precautions to include organisms spread by blood and alsoBody fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat, whether or not they contain bloodNon-intact (broken) skinMucous membranesPrevious CDC recommendations on infection control for dentistry (1986, 1993) focused on the use of Universal Precautions to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens. Universal Precautions were based on the concept that all blood and certain body fluids should be treated as infectious because it is impossible to know who may be carrying a bloodborne virus. Thus, Universal Precautions should apply to all patients.The relevance of Universal Precautions applied to other potentially infectious materials was recognized, and in 1996, CDC replaced Universal Precautions with Standard Precautions. Standard Precautions integrate and expand Universal Precautions to include organisms spread by:Blood.All body fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat, regardless of whether they contain blood.Non-intact skin.Mucous membranes.Saliva has always been considered a potentially infectious material in dental infection control; thus, no operational difference exists in clinical dental practice between Universal Precautions and Standard Precautions.
9 Elements of Standard Precautions HandwashingUse of gloves, masks, eye protection, and gownsPatient care equipmentEnvironmental surfacesInjury preventionStandard Precautions include:Handwashing.The use of personal protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, eye protection, and gowns, that are intended to prevent the exposure of skin and mucous membranes to blood and other potentially infectious materials.Proper cleaning and decontamination of patient care equipment.Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces.Injury prevention through engineering controls or safer work practices.Note: OSHA retains the use of the term “Universal Precautions” because they are concerned primarily with transmission of bloodborne pathogens.
10 Preventing Transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens Bloodborne viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Are transmissible in health care settingsCan produce chronic infectionAre often carried by persons unaware of their infectionBloodborne viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are of concern to dental health care personnel (DHCP). These viruses:Can be transmitted to patients and health care personnel (HCP) in health care settings.Can produce chronic infection.Are often carried by persons unaware of their infection.
11 Average Risk of Bloodborne Virus Transmission after Needlestick SourceRiskHBV22.0%-31.0% clinical hepatitis; 37%-62% serological evidence of HBV infectionHCV1.8% (0%-7% range)HIV0.3% (0.2%-0.5% range)This slide shows the average risk of transmission after a single needlestick from an infected patient by type of bloodborne virus. As shown here, risk varies greatly by type of virus.For instance, the risk of HBV transmission after a percutaneous exposure (e.g., needlestick) to HBV-infected blood varies from 1%– 62%, depending on the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) status of the source patient. If the source patient’s blood is positive for HBeAg (a marker of increased infectivity), the risk of transmission can be as high as 62%. If the patient’s blood is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive but HBeAg negative, the risk varies from 1%– 37%.The average risk of HCV transmission after a percutaneous exposure to HCV-infected blood is 1.8%.The average risk of HIV infection after a percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood is 0.3%. To put this in perspective, 1 in 3 needlesticks from an HBeAg+ source patient would result in infection compared to only 1 in 300 needlesticks from an HIV-infected patient.
12 Hands Need to be Cleaned When Visibly dirtyAfter touching contaminated objects with bare handsBefore and after patient treatment (before glove placement and after glove removal)CDC recommends that hands be cleaned:When they are visibly dirty.After touching contaminated objects with bare hands.Before and after patient treatment, that is, before glove placement and immediately after glove removal.Photo credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
13 Hand Hygiene Definitions HandwashingWashing hands with plain soap and waterAntiseptic handwashWashing hands with water and soap or other detergents containing an antiseptic agentAlcohol-based handrubRubbing hands with an alcohol-containing preparationSurgical antisepsisHandwashing with an antiseptic soap or an alcohol-based handrub before operations by surgical personnelHand hygiene is a general term that applies to either handwashing, antiseptic handwash, alcohol-based handrub, or surgical hand hygiene/antisepsis.Handwashing refers to washing hands with plain soap and water.Antiseptic handwash refers to washing hands with water and soap or other detergents containing an antiseptic agent, such as triclosan or chlorhexidine.Using a waterless agent containing 60%–95% ethanol or isopropanol alcohol-containing preparation is referred to as an alcohol handrub. These agents are a new addition to the dental guidelines and have become more frequently used in the United States to improve compliance with handwashing in hospitals. In dental practices, however, sinks are readily available and the need for alcohol preparations is not as great.Surgical antisepsis refers to an antiseptic handwash or alcohol-based handrub* performed preoperatively by surgical personnel to eliminate microorganisms on hands. Antiseptic preparations for surgical hand hygiene should have persistent (long-lasting) antimicrobial activity.* If using an alcohol-based handrub the hands should first be washed with soap and water.
14 Special Hand Hygiene Considerations Use hand lotions to prevent skin drynessConsider compatibility of hand care products with gloves (e.g., mineral oils and petroleum bases may cause early glove failure)Keep fingernails shortAvoid artificial nailsAvoid hand jewelry that may tear glovesHand lotions can prevent skin dryness associated with hand washing. However, it’s important to consider the compatibility of lotion and antiseptic products and the effect of petroleum or other oil emollients on the integrity of gloves when selecting and using them.Short nails allow thorough cleaning of nails and may reduce premature glove tearing. Artificial nails can harbor pathogens—thus, their use should be avoided.During surgical procedures, hand or arm jewelry can harbor microorganisms or increase risk of glove failure. If worn during non-surgical procedures, hand or arm jewelry can affect glove placement, fit, or durability.
15 Personal Protective Equipment A major component of Standard PrecautionsProtects the skin and mucous membranes from exposure to infectious materials in spray or spatterShould be removed when leaving treatment areasPersonal protective equipment (PPE), or barrier precautions, are a major component of Standard Precautions. Use of rotary dental and surgical instruments (e.g., handpieces, ultrasonic scalers) and air-water syringes creates a visible spray that contains primarily large-particle droplets of water, saliva, blood, microorganisms, and other debris. This spatter travels only a short distance and settles out quickly, landing either on the floor, operatory surfaces, dental health care personnel (DHCP), or the patient.PPE is essential to protect the skin and the mucous membranes of DHCP from exposure to infectious or potentially infectious materials. PPE should be worn whenever there is potential for contact with spray or spatter and should be removed when leaving treatment areas.Photo credit: Lt. Col. Jennifer Harte, U.S.A.F. Dental Investigation Service, Great Lakes, IL.
16 Masks, Protective Eyewear, Face Shields Wear a surgical mask and either eye protection with solid side shields or a face shield to protect mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and mouthChange masks between patientsClean reusable face protection between patients; if visibly soiled, clean and disinfectA standard surgical mask that covers the nose and mouth is worn to protect the mucous membranes from spatter generated during dental procedures. Eye protection with solid side shields or a face shield should also be worn.A mask should be changed between patients or if it becomes wet during patient treatment.Clean reusable face protection with soap and water between patients; if visibly soiled, clean and disinfect.
17 Protective ClothingWear gowns, lab coats, or uniforms that cover skin and personal clothing likely to become soiled with blood, saliva, or infectious materialChange if visibly soiledRemove all barriers before leaving the work areaDHCP should wear long-sleeved disposable or reusable gowns, lab coats, or uniforms that cover skin and personal clothing likely to become soiled with blood, saliva, or infectious material (e.g., when spatter and spray of blood, saliva, or other potentially infectious material to the forearms might occur).DHCP should change protective clothing when it becomes visibly soiled or as soon as possible if penetrated by blood or other potentially infectious fluids.All protective clothing should be removed before leaving patient care or laboratory areas.Photo credit: Lt. Col. Jennifer Harte, U.S.A.F. Dental Investigation Service, Great Lakes, IL.
18 GlovesMinimize the risk of health care personnel acquiring infections from patientsPrevent microbial flora from being transmitted from health care personnel to patientsReduce contamination of the hands of health care personnel by microbial flora that can be transmitted from one patient to anotherAre not a substitute for handwashing!Gloves are worn for three reasons:To minimize the risk of health care personnel acquiring infections from patients.To prevent pathogenic organisms from being transmitted from health care personnel to patients.To reduce contamination of health care personnel's hands by organisms that can be transmitted from one patient to another.Wearing gloves does not eliminate or replace the need for hand washing. Hand hygiene should be performed immediately prior to putting on and after removal of gloves. Gloves might have small holes or tears that are not noticeable, or hands can become contaminated as gloves are removed. Such circumstances increase the risk of wound contamination and exposure of the DHCP’s hands to microorganisms from patients.
19 Recommendations for Gloving Wear gloves when contact with blood, saliva, and mucous membranes is possibleRemove gloves after patient careWear a new pair of gloves for each patientFor the protection of DHCP and patients, gloves should always be worn when contact with blood, saliva, and mucous membranes is possible.Gloves should be removed after patient care and hands should be immediately washed. Hands should also be washed before putting gloves on.Photo credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
20 Recommendations for Gloving Remove gloves thatare torn, cut or puncturedIf the integrity of a glove is compromised by tears, cuts, or punctures, it should be changed as soon as possible.Surgical or examination gloves should not be washed before use, nor should they be washed, disinfected, or sterilized for reuse. Washing of gloves can cause a condition known as “wicking,” or penetration of liquids through undetected holes in the gloves. These circumstances may increase the risk of wound contamination and exposure of the DHCP’s hands to microorganisms from patients. Disinfecting agents, oils, certain oil-based lotions, and heat treatments such as autoclaving may result in deterioration of gloves.Photo credit: Lt. Col. Jennifer Harte, U.S.A.F. Dental Investigation Service, Great Lakes, IL.Do not wash, disinfector sterilize gloves for reuse
21 Critical InstrumentsPenetrate mucous membranes or contact bone, the bloodstream, or other normally sterile tissues (of the mouth)Heat sterilize between uses or use sterile single-use, disposable devicesExamples include surgical instruments, scalpel blades, periodontal scalers, and surgical dental bursThere are three categories of patient-care items depending on their intended use and the potential risk of disease transmission.Critical items penetrate soft tissue or contact bone, the bloodstream, or other normally sterile tissues of the mouth. They have the highest risk of transmitting infection and should be heat-sterilized between patient uses. Alternatively, use sterile, single-use disposable devices.Examples include surgical instruments, periodontal scalers, scalpel blades, and surgical dental burs.
22 Semi-critical Instruments Contact mucous membranes but do not penetrate soft tissueHeat sterilize or high-level disinfectExamples: Dental mouth mirrors, amalgam condensers, and dental handpiecesSemi-critical items contact only mucous membranes and do not penetrate soft tissues. As such, they have a lower risk of transmission.Because most items in this category are heat-tolerant, they should be heat sterilized between patient uses. For heat-sensitive instruments, high-level disinfection is appropriate.Examples of semi-critical instruments include dental mouth mirrors, amalgam condensers, and impression trays. Dental handpieces are a special case. Even though they do not penetrate soft tissue, it is difficult for chemical germicides to reach the internal parts of handpieces. For this reason, they should be heat sterilized using a steam autoclave or chemical vapor sterilizer.
23 Noncritical Instruments and Devices Contact intact skinClean and disinfect using a low to intermediate level disinfectantExamples: X-ray heads, facebows, pulse oximeter, blood pressure cuffNoncritical instruments and devices only contact intact (unbroken) skin, which serves as an effective barrier to microorganisms.These items carry such a low risk of transmitting infections that they usually require only cleaning and low-level disinfection. If using a low-level disinfectant, according to OSHA, it must have a label claim for killing HIV and HBV. However, if an item is visibly bloody, it should be cleaned and disinfected using an intermediate-level disinfectant before use on another patient.Examples of instruments in this category include X-ray head/cones, facebows, pulse oximeter, and blood pressure cuff.
24 Instrument Processing Area Use a designated processing area to control quality and ensure safetyDivide processing area into work areasReceiving, cleaning, and decontaminationPreparation and packagingSterilizationStorageMost instrument cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilization should occur in a designated central processing area to control both quality and personnel safety.To prevent cross-contamination, the instrument processing area should be physically or spatially divided into regions for cleaning, packaging, sterilization, and storage.In the cleaning area, reusable contaminated instruments are received, sorted, and cleaned.The packaging area is for inspecting, assembling, and packaging clean instruments in preparation for final sterilization.The sterilization and storage area contains the sterilizers and related supplies, incubators for analyzing spore tests (if performed in office—although some states require using a testing service), and can contain enclosed storage for sterile items and disposable (single-use) items.
25 Automated Cleaning Ultrasonic cleaner Instrument washer Washer-disinfectorCleaning is the basic first step in all decontamination processes. Cleaning involves the physical removal of debris and reduces the number of microorganisms on an instrument or device. If visible debris or organic matter is not removed, it can interfere with the disinfection or sterilization process.Automated or mechanical cleaning equipment, such as ultrasonic cleaners, instrument washers, and washer-disinfectors, are commonly used to clean dental instruments. Automated cleaners increase the efficiency of the cleaning process and reduce the handling of sharp instruments. After cleaning, instruments should be rinsed with water to remove chemical or detergent residue.Photo credit: Chris Miller, PhD, Indiana University School of Dentistry.
26 Environmental Surfaces May become contaminatedNot directly involved in infectious disease transmissionDo not require as stringent decontamination proceduresEnvironmental surfaces can become contaminated with microorganisms during patient care, although they have not been associated directly with disease transmission to patients or DHCP.Environmental surfaces do not require decontamination procedures as stringent as those used on patient care items.
27 Categories of Environmental Surfaces Clinical contact surfacesHigh potential for direct contamination from spray or spatter or by contact with DHCP’s gloved handHousekeeping surfacesDo not come into contact with patients or devicesLimited risk of disease transmissionThere are two categories of environmental surfaces.Clinical contact surfaces have a high potential for direct contamination from patient materials either by direct spray or spatter generated during dental procedures or by contact with DHCP’s gloved hand. These surfaces can later contaminate other instruments, devices, hands, or gloves.Housekeeping surfaces do not come into contact with patients or devices used in dental procedures. Therefore, they have a limited risk of disease transmission.
28 Clinical Contact Surfaces This slide shows some examples of clinical contact surfaces, including a light handle, countertop, bracket tray, dental chair, and door handle (shown by arrows).Photo credit: Lt. Col. Jennifer Harte, U.S.A.F. Dental Investigation Service, Great Lakes, IL.
29 Housekeeping Surfaces Examples of housekeeping surfaces are walls, sinks, and floors (shown by arrows).Photo credit: Lt. Col. Jennifer Harte, U.S.A.F. Dental Investigation Service, Great Lakes, IL.
30 General Cleaning Recommendations Use barrier precautions (e.g., heavy-duty utility gloves, masks, protective eyewear) when cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfacesPhysical removal of microorganisms by cleaning is as important as the disinfection processFollow manufacturer’s instructions for proper use of EPA-registered hospital disinfectantsDo not use sterilant/high-level disinfectants on environmental surfacesUse appropriate protective barriers such as heavy-duty utility gloves, masks, and protective eyewear when cleaning and disinfecting surfaces.In general, cleaning and removal of microorganisms is as important as the disinfection process itself. Blood or other patient materials left on surfaces can interfere with the disinfecting process. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for proper storage, dilution, and use of hospital disinfectants.Because of their toxic nature, the use of sterilants or high-level disinfectants on environmental surfaces is NOT recommended.
31 Cleaning Clinical Contact Surfaces Risk of transmitting infections greater than for housekeeping surfacesSurface barriers can be used and changed between patientsORClean then disinfect using an EPA-registered low- (HIV/HBV claim) to intermediate-level (tuberculocidal claim) hospital disinfectantBecause clinical contact surfaces come into direct contact with contaminated gloves, instruments, spray or spatter, their risk of transmitting infection is greater than for housekeeping surfaces. These surfaces can subsequently contaminate other instruments, devices, hands, or gloves.Surface barriers can be used to protect clinical contact surfaces and changed between patients. Surface barriers are particularly useful for surfaces that are hard to clean, such as switches on dental chairs. This practice will also reduce exposure to harmful chemical disinfectants.If surface barriers cannot be used, clean and then disinfect the surface with an EPA-registered hospital disinfectant effective against HIV and HBV (low-level disinfectant). If the surface is visibly contaminated with blood or other patient material, clean and then disinfect the surface with an EPA-registered hospital disinfectant with a tuberculocidal claim (intermediate-level disinfectant).
32 Medical WasteMedical Waste: Not considered infectious, thus can be discarded in regular trashRegulated Medical Waste: Poses a potential risk of infection during handling and disposalThere is no evidence that traditional medical waste management has contributed to increased levels of disease in the community or among health care personnel.The majority of waste generated in a medical or dental office (~98%–99%) is not considered infectious and can be discarded in the regular trash. Examples include used gloves, masks, and lightly bloodied gauze.Some waste, such as used needles, extracted teeth, and gauze soaked in blood, may pose a potential risk of infection, however, and warrants special precautions during handling and disposal. Follow federal, state, and local regulations for proper treatment and disposal.
33 Regulated Medical Waste Management Properly labeled containment to prevent injuries and leakageMedical wastes are “treated” in accordance with state and local EPA regulationsProcesses for regulated waste include autoclaving and incinerationRegulated medical waste requires careful containment for treatment or disposal. A single leak-resistant biohazard bag is usually adequate to contain non-sharp, regulated medical waste. Puncture-resistant containers with a biohazard label, such as sharps containers, are used as containment for scalpel blades, needles, syringes, and unused sterile sharps.Medical waste, both nonregulated and regulated, should be stored and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local EPA regulations.Treatment of regulated waste can involve on-site or off-site autoclaving and incineration. Never include extracted teeth with amalgam in regulated waste when disposed by one of these methods.Photo credit: NIOSH Web site.
34 Dental Unit Waterlines and Biofilm Microbial biofilms form in small bore tubing of dental unitsBiofilms serve as a microbial reservoirPrimary source of microorganisms is municipal water supplyStudies have shown that colonies of microorganisms, or biofilms, can form on the inside of the small-bore plastic tubing that transports water within the dental unit to handpieces and air-water syringes. Once formed, a biofilm serves as a reservoir that may dramatically increase the number of free-floating microorganisms in water used for dental treatment.Most organisms isolated from dental water systems originate from the public water supply and do not pose a high risk of disease for healthy persons. Although a few pathogenic organisms, such as Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas sp., have been found, adverse public health threats have not been documented.Photo credit, top: CDC Image library. This Scanning Electron Micrograph depicts an E. coli (ATCC 11775) biofilm grown on PC (polycarbonate) coupons using a CDC biofilm reactor. Photo credit, bottom: Illustration from the Center for Biofilm Engineering, Bozeman MT.
35 Saliva EjectorsPreviously suctioned fluids might be retracted into the patient’s mouth when a seal is createdDo not advise patients to close their lips tightly around the tip of the saliva ejectorBackflow, meaning reverse flow, can occur when there is more negative pressure in the patient’s mouth than in the evacuator tubing, for example, when the patient uses the saliva ejector as a straw. When this happens, material from the mouth of a previous patient might remain in the vacuum line of the saliva ejector and be aspirated into the mouth of the next patient being treated.Although there have been no reports of any adverse health issues, patients should not be instructed to close their lips tightly around the saliva ejector tip during use.Photo credit: Lt. Col. Jennifer Harte, U.S.A.F. Dental Investigation Service, Great Lakes, IL.
36 Extracted Teeth Considered regulated medical waste Do not incinerate extracted teeth containing amalgamClean and disinfect before sending to lab for shade comparisonCan be given back to patientExtracted teeth that are being discarded are considered infectious and should be treated as regulated medical waste.Extracted teeth containing amalgam should not be placed in a medical waste container that uses an incinerator for final disposal. State and local regulations should be consulted regarding disposal of amalgam.Extracted teeth used for shade comparison should be cleaned and the surface disinfected with an intermediate-level EPA-registered hospital grade disinfectant before sending to the laboratory.If patients request their own extracted teeth, the tooth fairy wins: OSHA regulations no longer apply once the tooth has been returned to the patient. However, for the safety of others who may come into contact with the tooth, it should be cleaned and disinfected before it is returned to the patient.
37 Laser/Electrosurgery Plumes and Surgical Smoke Destruction of tissue creates smoke that may contain harmful by- productsInfectious materials (HSV, HPV) may contact mucous membranes of noseNo evidence of HIV/HBV transmissionNeed further studiesLasers or electrosurgical units can cause thermal destruction of tissue and create a smoke by-product containing toxic gases and vapors such as benzene; dead and live cellular material (including blood fragments), and viruses.One concern is that aerosolized infectious material, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) in the laser plume may contact the nasal mucosa of the laser operator and nearby DHCP.No evidence exists that HIV or HBV have been transmitted via aerosolization and inhalation.Until studies have fully evaluated the risk for DHCP from exposure to laser plumes and electrosurgery smoke, it might be practical to follow National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommendations (see guidelines). Use of precautions beyond Standard Precautions is an unresolved issue in dentistry.
38 Standard Instruments 1. Mouth mirror a. Used to view areas of oral cavity, reflect light on dark surfaces, and retract lips, and so forth for better visibilityb. Used in every basic tray set upc. Available in various sizes and with plain or magnifying ends
39 Explorera. Used to examine the teeth, detect carious lesions, and note other oral conditionsb. Available in many shapes and sizesc. May be single or double ended
40 Cotton pliersa. Used to carry objects such as cotton pellets or rolls to and from the mouthb. Some lock, some do not lock
41 Scalersa. Used to remove calculus (tartar) and debris from the teeth and sub-gingival pocketsb. Available in many shapesc. Used mainly for prophylactic (cleaning) or periodontal (gingiva) treatments
42 Periodontal probesa. Used to measure the depth of the gingival sulcus (space between the tooth and free gingiva)b. Has round, tapered blade with a blunt tip marked in millimeters (mm)
43 Excavatorsa. Group of instruments used mainly for removal of caries and refinement of internal opening in a cavity preparationb. Spoons1) Used to remove soft decay from cavity2) Cutting instruments with small curve or scoop at the working end
44 Chisels… YIKES!! a. Used for cutting and shaping enamel b. Enamel hatchet1) Similar to other hatchets but blade is larger and heavier2) Blade is beveled on only one side
45 Gingival margin trimmer 1) Special chisel for placing bevels on gingival enamel margins of proximoocclusal cavity preparations2) Chisel blade is placed at an angle to the shaft, not straight across like a hatched3) In addition, the blade is curved, not flat like a hatchet
46 Cleoid-discoid carver a. Double ended instrumentb. Also available as cleoid or discoid single endedc. Discoid is disc shaped, with cutting edge around the bladed. Discoid is disc shaped, with cutting edge around the blade
47 Plastic filling instruments (PFIs) a. Double ended instrument with packing end and cutting endb. Used to shape and condense a restorative material while it is still malleable or capable of being shaped or formedc. Also used with cements before setting occursd. Most have a small condenser at one end and a paddle like blade at the other end
48 Amalgam carrier1) Used to carry small masses of freshly mixed amalgam to the cavity preparation2) Available as lever type or plunger type carrier
49 Amalgam carver1) Used to carve or shape freshly placed amalgam t restore tooth to natural anatomy2) One example is Hollenback carver
50 Condenser plugger1)Used for condensing and packing amalgam into prepared cavity2) Ends may be serrated or plain
51 Matrix retainer and band 1) Retainer is used to hold band in place2) Matrix band is short strip of steel or other metal not affected by mercury3) Used to form a wall around a cavity so amalgam can be packed into place4) Plastic matrix strips are used with composite restorative material
52 Burnishers a. Contain working points in shape of balls or beaver tails b. Used primarily to burnish (adapt) the margins of gold restorations to a better fitc. Also used to polish other metals
53 Surgical instrumentsa. Very numerous depending on type of oral surgery performedb. Main instruments used in surgical extractionsc. Also called extracting forcepsd. Used to extract or remove teethe. Different ones each for specific tooth to be extracted