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Pre-Dental Society Spring Quarter 2013 Week 4 Dental Assisting Basics.

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Presentation on theme: "Pre-Dental Society Spring Quarter 2013 Week 4 Dental Assisting Basics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre-Dental Society Spring Quarter 2013 Week 4 Dental Assisting Basics

2 What is a Dental Assistant? A dental assistant is an individual who, without a license, may perform basic supportive dental procedures, as authorized by Section … under the supervision of a licensed dentist. "Basic supportive dental procedures" are those procedures that have technically elementary characteristics, are completely reversible, and are unlikely to precipitate potentially hazardous conditions for the patient being treated. The supervising licensed dentist shall be responsible for determining the competency of the dental assistant to perform the basic supportive dental procedures, as authorized by Section

3 How can I be a Dental Assistant? If employed over 120 days A board-approved course in the Dental Practice Act. A board-approved course in infection control. A course in basic life support offered by an instructor

4 What am I legally able to do? Under the general supervision of a supervising licensed dentist: Extra-oral duties or procedures specified by the supervising licensed dentist, provided that these duties or procedures meet the definition of a basic supportive procedure specified in Section Under the direct supervision of a supervising licensed dentist: Place and remove rubber dams or other isolation devices. Place, wedge, and remove matrices for restorative procedures. Cure restorative or orthodontic materials in operative site with a light-curing device. Remove periodontal dressings.

5 What am I not allowed to do? Diagnosis and comprehensive treatment planning. Placing, finishing, or removing permanent restorations. Surgery or cutting on hard and soft tissue including, but not limited to, the removal of teeth and the cutting and suturing of soft tissue. Prescribing medication.

6 Why Is Infection Control Important in Dentistry? Both patients and dental health care personnel (DHCP) can be exposed to pathogens Contact with blood, oral and respiratory secretions, and contaminated equipment occurs Proper procedures can prevent transmission of infections among patients and DHCP

7 Modes of Transmission Direct contact with blood or body fluids Indirect contact with a contaminated instrument or surface Contact of mucosa of the eyes, nose, or mouth with droplets or spatter Inhalation of airborne microorganisms

8 Standard Precautions Apply to all patients Integrate and expand Universal Precautions to include organisms spread by blood and also Body fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat, whether or not they contain blood Non-intact (broken) skin Mucous membranes

9 Elements of Standard Precautions Handwashing Use of gloves, masks, eye protection, and gowns Patient care equipment Environmental surfaces Injury prevention

10 Preventing Transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens Are transmissible in health care settings Can produce chronic infection Are often carried by persons unaware of their infection Bloodborne viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

11 Average Risk of Bloodborne Virus Transmission after Needlestick SourceRisk HBV 22.0%-31.0% clinical hepatitis; 37%- 62% serological evidence of HBV infection HCV 1.8% (0%-7% range) HIV 0.3% (0.2%-0.5% range)

12 Hands Need to be Cleaned When Visibly dirty After touching contaminated objects with bare hands Before and after patient treatment (before glove placement and after glove removal)

13 Hand Hygiene Definitions Handwashing Washing hands with plain soap and water Antiseptic handwash Washing hands with water and soap or other detergents containing an antiseptic agent Alcohol-based handrub Rubbing hands with an alcohol-containing preparation Surgical antisepsis Handwashing with an antiseptic soap or an alcohol-based handrub before operations by surgical personnel

14 Special Hand Hygiene Considerations Use hand lotions to prevent skin dryness Consider compatibility of hand care products with gloves (e.g., mineral oils and petroleum bases may cause early glove failure) Keep fingernails short Avoid artificial nails Avoid hand jewelry that may tear gloves

15 Personal Protective Equipment A major component of Standard Precautions Protects the skin and mucous membranes from exposure to infectious materials in spray or spatter Should be removed when leaving treatment areas

16 Masks, Protective Eyewear, Face Shields Wear a surgical mask and either eye protection with solid side shields or a face shield to protect mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and mouth Change masks between patients Clean reusable face protection between patients; if visibly soiled, clean and disinfect

17 Protective Clothing Wear gowns, lab coats, or uniforms that cover skin and personal clothing likely to become soiled with blood, saliva, or infectious material Change if visibly soiled Remove all barriers before leaving the work area

18 Gloves Minimize the risk of health care personnel acquiring infections from patients Prevent microbial flora from being transmitted from health care personnel to patients Reduce contamination of the hands of health care personnel by microbial flora that can be transmitted from one patient to another Are not a substitute for handwashing!

19 Recommendations for Gloving Wear gloves when contact with blood, saliva, and mucous membranes is possible Remove gloves after patient care Wear a new pair of gloves for each patient

20 Recommendations for Gloving Remove gloves that are torn, cut or punctured Do not wash, disinfect or sterilize gloves for reuse

21 Critical Instruments Penetrate mucous membranes or contact bone, the bloodstream, or other normally sterile tissues (of the mouth) Heat sterilize between uses or use sterile single-use, disposable devices Examples include surgical instruments, scalpel blades, periodontal scalers, and surgical dental burs

22 Semi-critical Instruments Contact mucous membranes but do not penetrate soft tissue Heat sterilize or high-level disinfect Examples: Dental mouth mirrors, amalgam condensers, and dental handpieces

23 Noncritical Instruments and Devices Contact intact skin Clean and disinfect using a low to intermediate level disinfectant Examples: X-ray heads, facebows, pulse oximeter, blood pressure cuff

24 Instrument Processing Area Use a designated processing area to control quality and ensure safety Divide processing area into work areas Receiving, cleaning, and decontamination Preparation and packaging Sterilization Storage

25 Automated Cleaning Ultrasonic cleaner Instrument washer Washer-disinfector

26 Environmental Surfaces May become contaminated Not directly involved in infectious disease transmission Do not require as stringent decontamination procedures

27 Categories of Environmental Surfaces Clinical contact surfaces High potential for direct contamination from spray or spatter or by contact with DHCPs gloved hand Housekeeping surfaces Do not come into contact with patients or devices Limited risk of disease transmission

28 Clinical Contact Surfaces

29 Housekeeping Surfaces

30 General Cleaning Recommendations Use barrier precautions (e.g., heavy-duty utility gloves, masks, protective eyewear) when cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces Physical removal of microorganisms by cleaning is as important as the disinfection process Follow manufacturers instructions for proper use of EPA-registered hospital disinfectants Do not use sterilant/high-level disinfectants on environmental surfaces

31 Cleaning Clinical Contact Surfaces Risk of transmitting infections greater than for housekeeping surfaces Surface barriers can be used and changed between patients OR Clean then disinfect using an EPA-registered low- (HIV/HBV claim) to intermediate-level (tuberculocidal claim) hospital disinfectant

32 Medical Waste Medical Waste: Not considered infectious, thus can be discarded in regular trash Regulated Medical Waste: Poses a potential risk of infection during handling and disposal

33 Regulated Medical Waste Management Properly labeled containment to prevent injuries and leakage Medical wastes are treated in accordance with state and local EPA regulations Processes for regulated waste include autoclaving and incineration

34 Dental Unit Waterlines and Biofilm Microbial biofilms form in small bore tubing of dental units Biofilms serve as a microbial reservoir Primary source of microorganisms is municipal water supply

35 Saliva Ejectors Previously suctioned fluids might be retracted into the patients mouth when a seal is created Do not advise patients to close their lips tightly around the tip of the saliva ejector

36 Considered regulated medical waste Do not incinerate extracted teeth containing amalgam Clean and disinfect before sending to lab for shade comparison Can be given back to patient Extracted Teeth

37 Laser/Electrosurgery Plumes and Surgical Smoke Destruction of tissue creates smoke that may contain harmful by- products Infectious materials (HSV, HPV) may contact mucous membranes of nose No evidence of HIV/HBV transmission Need further studies

38 Standard Instruments 1.Mouth mirror a. Used to view areas of oral cavity, reflect light on dark surfaces, and retract lips, and so forth for better visibility b. Used in every basic tray set up c. Available in various sizes and with plain or magnifying ends

39 Explorer a. Used to examine the teeth, detect carious lesions, and note other oral conditions b. Available in many shapes and sizes c. May be single or double ended

40 Cotton pliers a.Used to carry objects such as cotton pellets or rolls to and from the mouth b. Some lock, some do not lock

41 Scalers a.Used to remove calculus (tartar) and debris from the teeth and sub-gingival pockets b.Available in many shapes c.Used mainly for prophylactic (cleaning) or periodontal (gingiva) treatments

42 Periodontal probes a.Used to measure the depth of the gingival sulcus (space between the tooth and free gingiva) b.Has round, tapered blade with a blunt tip marked in millimeters (mm)

43 Excavators a.Group of instruments used mainly for removal of caries and refinement of internal opening in a cavity preparation b.Spoons 1) Used to remove soft decay from cavity 2) Cutting instruments with small curve or scoop at the working end

44 Chisels… YIKES!! a.Used for cutting and shaping enamel b.Enamel hatchet 1) Similar to other hatchets but blade is larger and heavier 2) Blade is beveled on only one side

45 Gingival margin trimmer 1)Special chisel for placing bevels on gingival enamel margins of proximoocclusal cavity preparations 2)Chisel blade is placed at an angle to the shaft, not straight across like a hatched 3)In addition, the blade is curved, not flat like a hatchet

46 Cleoid-discoid carver a.Double ended instrument b.Also available as cleoid or discoid single ended c.Discoid is disc shaped, with cutting edge around the blade d.Discoid is disc shaped, with cutting edge around the blade

47 Plastic filling instruments (PFIs) a.Double ended instrument with packing end and cutting end b.Used to shape and condense a restorative material while it is still malleable or capable of being shaped or formed c.Also used with cements before setting occurs d.Most have a small condenser at one end and a paddle like blade at the other end

48 Amalgam carrier 1) Used to carry small masses of freshly mixed amalgam to the cavity preparation 2) Available as lever type or plunger type carrier

49 Amalgam carver 1)Used to carve or shape freshly placed amalgam t restore tooth to natural anatomy 2)One example is Hollenback carver

50 Condenser plugger 1)Used for condensing and packing amalgam into prepared cavity 2) Ends may be serrated or plain

51 Matrix retainer and band 1)Retainer is used to hold band in place 2)Matrix band is short strip of steel or other metal not affected by mercury 3)Used to form a wall around a cavity so amalgam can be packed into place 4)Plastic matrix strips are used with composite restorative material

52 Burnishers a.Contain working points in shape of balls or beaver tails b.Used primarily to burnish (adapt) the margins of gold restorations to a better fit c.Also used to polish other metals

53 Surgical instruments a. Very numerous depending on type of oral surgery performed b. Main instruments used in surgical extractions c. Also called extracting forceps d. Used to extract or remove teeth e. Different ones each for specific tooth to be extracted

54 Surgical Forceps

55 Internal Anatomy of an Incisor

56 Internal Anatomy of a Molar

57

58 Surfaces

59 Permanent Teeth


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