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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 14.1 – 14.14 Seventh Edition Elaine.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 14.1 – 14.14 Seventh Edition Elaine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 14.1 – Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 14 The Digestive System and Body Metabolism

2 Organs of the Digestive System Slide 14.2a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two main organ groups 1.Organs of the Alimentary canal (continuous coiled hollow tube)- Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus 2.Accessory digestive organs- tongue, teeth, salivary glands, gall bladder, liver, pancreas

3 Functions of Digestive System Slide 14.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1.Ingestion 2.Digestion Breakdown of ingested food 3.Absorption of nutrients into the blood 4.Metabolism 1.Production of cellular energy (ATP) 2.Constructive and degradative cellular activities 5.Elimination

4 Events of Digestion 1.Mechanical Digestion Physical breakdown of food in mouth and continues churning and mixing and emptying by sm. Muscles of stomach and sm. Intestines 2.Chemical Digestion breakdown of large nutrients such as CHO, Lipids, proteins, into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by cells CHO Lipids Proteins monosaccharides fatty acids and glycerol amino acids

5 Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy (Diagram) Slide 14.4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lips (labia) – protect the anterior opening Cheeks – form the lateral walls Hard palate – forms the anterior roof Soft palate – forms the posterior roof Uvula – fleshy projection of the soft palate

6 Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy Slide 14.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vestibule – space between lips externally and teeth and gums internally Oral cavity – area contained by the teeth Tongue – attached at hyoid and styloid processes of the skull, and by the lingual frenulum Figure 14.2a

7 Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy Slide 14.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tonsils Palatine tonsils Lingual tonsil Figure 14.2a

8 Processes Occurring in the Mouth Slide 14.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mastication (chewing) of food Mixing masticated food with saliva Initiation of swallowing by the tongue Allowing for the sense of taste

9 Salivary Glands Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Saliva-producing glands Secrete salivary amylase – begins the digestion of starches Parotid glands – located anterior to ears Submandibular glands Sublingual glands

10 Teeth = Dentition Slide 14.35a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The role is to masticate (chew) food Humans have two sets of teeth Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth 20 teeth are fully formed by age two Permanent Teeth Replace deciduous teeth beginning between the ages of 6 to 12 A full set is 32 teeth, but some people do not have wisdom teeth

11 Teeth = Dentition Slide 14.35a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth Incisors Central (6-8 mo.) Lateral (8-10 mo.) Canine (16-20 mo.) Molars 1 st molar (10-15 mo.) 2 nd molar ~ 2yrs.

12 Teeth Permanent teeth ~ 6 to 7yrs. Incisors Central (7 yrs.) Lateral (8 yrs.) Canine ~ 11 yrs. Pre-Molars (bicuspids) 1 st pre-molars ~ 11 yrs. 2 nd pre-molars ~ yrs. Molars 1 st molar ~ 6-7 yrs. 2 nd molar ~ yrs. 3 rd molar ~ yrs. (wisdom tooth)

13 Regions of a Tooth Slide 14.37a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Crown – exposed part Outer enamel Dentin Pulp cavity Neck Region in contact with the gum Connects crown to root Figure 14.10

14 Regions of a Tooth Slide 14.37b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Root Periodontal membrane attached to the bone Root canal carrying blood vessels and nerves Figure 14.10

15 Enamel Dentin Pulp w/in Pulp Cavity Gingiva Peridontal ligament Cementum Root canal Apical foramen Structures of a Tooth Crown Neck Root

16 Pharynx Anatomy Slide 14.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nasopharynx – not part of the digestive system Oropharynx – posterior to oral cavity Laryngopharynx – below the oropharynx and connected to the esophagus Figure 14.2a

17 Pharynx Function Slide 14.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serves as a passageway for air and food Food is propelled to the esophagus by two muscle layers Longitudinal inner layer Circular outer layer Food movement is by alternating contractions of the muscle layers (peristalsis)

18 Esophagus Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Runs from pharynx to stomach through the diaphragm Conducts food by peristalsis (slow rhythmic squeezing) Passageway for food only (respiratory system branches off after the pharynx)

19 Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs Slide 14.11a Mucosa Innermost layer Secretory and absorptive layer Moist membrane Surface epithelium Small amount of connective tissue (lamina propria) Small smooth muscle layer

20 Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs Slide 14.11b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Submucosa Just beneath the mucosa Soft connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and lymphatics

21 Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs Slide Muscularis externa – consists of two layers of smooth muscle Inner circular layer Outer longitudinal layer Serosa Outermost layer – visceral peritoneum Layer of serous fluid- producing cells Continuous with mesentary/mesocolon

22 Stomach Functions Slide Acts as a storage tank for food Site of food breakdown Chemical breakdown of protein begins Delivers chyme (processed food) to the small intestine Secretes gastric juices by gastric glands Secretes mucous by mucus glands Produces pepsin – breakdown of protein

23 Stomach Anatomy Slide 14.15a Site of mechanical/chemical breakdown of protein Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity Food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter

24 Stomach Anatomy Slide 14.15b Regions of the stomach Cardiac region – near the heart Fundus Body Phylorus – funnel- shaped terminal end Food empties into the small intestine at the pyloric sphincter

25 Stomach Anatomy Slide 14.16a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rugae – internal folds of the mucosa External regions Lesser curvature Greater curvature

26 Stomach Anatomy Slide 14.16b Layers of peritoneum attached to the stomach Lesser omentum – attaches the liver to the lesser curvature Greater omentum – attaches the greater curvature to the posterior body wall Contains fat to insulate, cushion, and protect abdominal organs

27 Structure of the Stomach Mucosa Slide 14.20a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gastric pits formed by folded mucosa Glands and specialized cells are in the gastric gland region

28 Specialized Mucosa of the Stomach Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Simple columnar epithelium Mucous neck cells – produce a sticky alkaline mucus Gastric glands – secrete gastric juice Chief cells – produce protein-digesting enzymes (pepsinogens) Parietal cells – produce hydrochloric acid Pepsingogen is an inactive form which has to be activated by HCl into pepsin

29 Food Breakdown in the Stomach Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gastric juice is regulated by neural and hormonal factors Presence of food or falling pH causes the release of gastrin Gastrin causes stomach glands to produce protein-digesting enzymes Hydrocholoric acid makes the stomach contents very acidic

30 Necessity of an Extremely Acid Environment in the Stomach Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Activates pepsinogen to pepsin for protein digestion Provides a hostile environment for microorganisms

31 Digestion and Absorption in the Stomach Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protein digestion enzymes Pepsin – an active protein digesting enzyme Rennin – works on digesting milk protein The only absorption that occurs in the stomach is of alcohol and aspirin

32 Small Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The bodys major digestive organ allows for continued digestion of CHO, and fats Site of nutrient absorption into the blood Muscular tube extending form the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve Suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by the mesentery

33 Villi of the Small Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fingerlike structures formed by the mucosa Give the small intestine more surface area Figure 14.7a

34 Microvilli of the Small Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Small projections of the plasma membrane Found on absorptive cells Figure 14.7c

35 Structures Involved in Absorption of Nutrients Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Absorptive cells Blood capillaries Lacteals (specialized lymphatic capillaries)

36 Folds of the Small Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Called circular folds or plicae circulares Deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa Do not disappear when filled with food The submucosa has Peyers patches (collections of lymphatic tissue)

37 Subdivisions of the Small Intestine 1.Duodenum Attached to the stomach Curves around the head of the pancreas Contains duodenal glands (Burners Glands) Secrete alkaline mucus to protect the mucosa from excess acid coming from stomach Contain Crypts of Liebierkuhn Secretes enzymes that breakdown CHO, proteins, and nucleic acids

38 Subdivisions of the Small Intestine 2.Jejunum Attaches anteriorly to the duodenum 3.Ileum Extends from jejunum to large intestine Contains peyers patches which are lymphoid tissues (lymphocytes) Due to fact that indigested food has large amts. of bacteria

39 Digestion in the Small Intestine Slide 14.57a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Enzymes from the brush border Break double sugars into simple sugars Complete some protein digestion Pancreatic enzymes play the major digestive function Help complete digestion of starch (pancreatic amylase) Carry out about half of all protein digestion (trypsin, etc.)

40 Digestion in the Small Intestine Slide 14.57b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pancreatic enzymes play the major digestive function (continued) Responsible for fat digestion (lipase) Digest nucleic acids (nucleases) Alkaline content neutralizes acidic chyme

41 Absorption in the Small Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Water is absorbed along the length of the small intestine End products of digestion Most substances are absorbed by active transport through cell membranes Lipids are absorbed by diffusion Substances are transported to the liver by the hepatic portal vein or lymph

42 Propulsion in the Small Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Peristalsis is the major means of moving food Segmental movements Mix chyme with digestive juices Aid in propelling food

43 Large Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Larger in diameter, but shorter than the small intestine Frames the internal abdomen

44 Functions of the Large Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Absorption of water Eliminates indigestible food from the body as feces Does not participate in digestion of food Goblet cells produce mucus to act as a lubricant

45 Structures of the Large Intestine Slide 14.30b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Colon Ascending Transverse Descending S-shaped sigmoidal Rectum Anus – external body opening

46 Structures of the Large Intestine Slide 14.30a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cecum – saclike first part of the large intestine Appendix Accumulation of lymphatic tissue that sometimes becomes inflamed (appendicitis) Hangs from the cecum

47 Modifications to the Muscularis Externa in the Large Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Smooth muscle is reduced to three bands (teniae coli) Muscle bands have some degree of tone Walls are formed into pocketlike sacs called haustra

48 Food Breakdown and Absorption in the Large Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings No digestive enzymes are produced Resident bacteria digest remaining nutrients Produce some vitamin K and B Release gases Water and vitamins K and B are absorbed Remaining materials are eliminated via feces

49 Propulsion in the Large Intestine Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sluggish peristalsis Mass movements Slow, powerful movements Occur three to four times per day Presence of feces in the rectum causes a defecation reflex Internal anal sphincter is relaxed Defecation occurs with relaxation of the voluntary (external) anal sphincter

50 Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine Slide 14.23a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Source of enzymes that are mixed with chyme Intestinal cells Pancreas Bile enters from the gall bladder

51 Pancreas Produces a wide spectrum of digestive enzymes that break down all categories of food Pancreatic lipase breaks down fat into glycerol and Fatty acids. Enzymes are secreted into the duodenum Alkaline fluid introduced with enzymes neutralizes acidic chyme Endocrine products of pancreas Insulin Glucagon Picks up glucose in blood and converts into glycogen in liver Converts glycogen into glucose

52 Liver Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Largest gland in the body Detoxifies blood of chemicals and produces bile Located on the right side of the body under the diaphragm Consists of four lobes suspended from the diaphragm and abdominal wall by the falciform ligament Connected to the gall bladder via the common hepatic duct Liver

53 Bile Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Produced by the liver Emulsifying agent used to breakdown fat into smaller fat molecules Composition Bile salts Bile pigment (mostly bilirubin from the breakdown of hemoglobin) Cholesterol Phospholipids Electrolytes

54 Gall Bladder Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sac found in hollow fossa of liver Stores bile from the liver by way of the cystic duct Bile is introduced into the duodenum in the presence of fatty food Gallstones can cause blockages

55 Processes of the Digestive System Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 14.11

56 End of Part One Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 14.11

57 Nutrition Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutrient – substance used by the body for growth, maintenance, and repair Categories of nutrients Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Mineral Water

58 Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carbohydrates Most are derived from plants Exceptions: lactose from milk and small amounts of glycogens from meats Lipids Saturated fats from animal products Unsaturated fats from nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils Cholesterol from egg yolk, meats, and milk products

59 Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Proteins Complete proteins – contain all essential amino acids Most are from animal products Legumes and beans also have proteins, but are incomplete Vitamins Most vitamins are used as cofactors and act with enzymes Found in all major food groups

60 Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Minerals Play many roles in the body Most mineral-rich foods are vegetables, legumes, milk, and some meats

61 Metabolism Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical reactions necessary to maintain life Catabolism – substances are broken down to simpler substances Anabolism – larger molecules are built from smaller ones Energy is released during catabolism

62 Carbohydrate Metabolism Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The bodys preferred source to produce cellular energy (ATP) Glucose (blood sugar) is the major breakdown product and fuel to make ATP Figure 14.16

63 Cellular Respiration Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Oxygen-using events take place within the cell to create ATP from ADP Carbon leaves cells as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Hydrogen atoms are combined with oxygen to form water Energy produced by these reactions adds a phosphorus to ADP to produce ATP ATP can be broken down to release energy for cellular use

64 Metabolic Pathways Involved in Cellular Respiration Slide 14.70a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Glycolysis – energizes a glucose molecule so that it can be split into two pyruvic acid molecules and yield ATP

65 Metabolic Pathways Involved in Cellular Respiration Slide 14.70b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 14.17

66 Metabolic Pathways Involved in Cellular Respiration Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Krebs cycle Produces virtually all the carbon dioxide and water resulting from cell respiration Yields a small amount of ATP

67 Metabolic Pathways Involved in Cellular Respiration Slide 14.72a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Electron transport chain Hydrogen atoms removed during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are delivered to protein carriers Figure 14.18

68 Metabolic Pathways Involved in Cellular Respiration Slide 14.72b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Electron transport chain (continued) Hydrogen is split into hydrogen ions and electrons in the mitochondria Figure 14.18

69 Metabolic Pathways Involved in Cellular Respiration Slide 14.72c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Electron transport chain (continued) Electrons give off energy in a series of steps to enable the production of ATP Figure 14.18

70 Fat Metabolism Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Handled mostly by the liver Use some fats to make ATP Synthesize lipoproteins, thromboplastin, and cholesterol Release breakdown products to the blood Body cells remove fat and cholesterol to build membranes and steroid hormones

71 Use of Fats for ATP Synthesis Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fats must first be broken down to acetic acid Within mitochondira, acetic acid is completely oxidized to produce water, carbon dioxide, and ATP

72 Protein Metabolism Slide 14.75a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Proteins are conserved by body cells because they are used for most cellular structures Ingested proteins are broken down to amino acids

73 Protein Metabolism Slide 14.75b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cells remove amino acids to build proteins Synthesized proteins are actively transported across cell membranes Amino acids are used to make ATP only when proteins are overabundant or there is a shortage of other sources

74 Production of ATP from Protein Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Amine groups are removed from proteins as ammonia The rest of the protein molecule enters the Krebs cycle in mitochondria The liver converts harmful ammonia to urea which can be eliminated in urine

75 Role of the Liver in Metabolism Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Several roles in digestion Detoxifies drugs and alcohol Degrades hormones Produce cholesterol, blood proteins (albumin and clotting proteins) Plays a central role in metabolism

76 Metabolic Functions of the Liver Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Glycogenesis Glucose molecules are converted to glycogen Glycogen molecules are stored in the liver Glycogenolysis Glucose is released from the liver after conversion from glycogen Gluconeogenesis Glucose is produced from fats and proteins

77 Metabolic Functions of the Liver Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 14.20

78 Metabolic Functions of the Liver Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fats and fatty acids are picked up by the liver Some are oxidized to provide energy for liver cells The rest are broken down into simpler compounds and released into the blood

79 Cholesterol Metabolism Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functions of cholesterol Serves as a structural basis of steroid hormones and vitamin D Is a major building block of plasma membranes Most cholesterol is produced in the liver and is not from diet

80 Cholesterol Transport Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cholesterol and fatty acids cannot freely circulate in the bloodstream They are transported by lipoproteins (lipid-protein complexes) Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) transport to body cells High-density lilpoproteins (HDLs) transport from body cells to the liver

81 Body Energy Balance Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Energy intake = total energy output (heat + work + energy storage) Energy intake is liberated during food oxidation Energy output Heat is usually about 60% Storage energy is in the form of fat or glycogen

82 Regulation of Food Intake Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body weight is usually relatively stable Energy intake and output remain about equal Mechanisms that may regulate food intake Levels of nutrients in the blood Hormones Body temperature Psychological factors

83 Metabolic Rate and Body Heat Production Slide 14.85a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Basic metabolic rate (BMR) – amount of heat produced by the body per unit of time at rest Factors that influence BMR Surface area – small body usually has higher BMR Gender – males tend to have higher BMR

84 Metabolic Rate and Body Heat Production Slide 14.85b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Factors that influence BMR (continued) Age – children and adolescents have a higher BMR The amount of thyroxine produced is the most important control factor More thyroxine means higher metabolic rate

85 Total Metabolic Rate (TMR) Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel ongoing activities TMR increases with an increase in body activity TMR must equal calories consumed to maintain homeostasis and maintain a constant weight

86 Body Temperature Regulation Slide 14.87a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most energy is released as foods are oxidized Most energy escapes as heat

87 Body Temperature Regulation Slide 14.87b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The body has a narrow range of homeostatic temperature Must remain between 35.6° to 37.8°C (96° to 100° F) The bodys thermostat is in the hypothalamus Initiates heat-loss or heat-promoting mechanisms

88 Heat Promoting Mechanisms Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vasoconstriction of blood vessels Blood is rerouted to deeper, more vital body organs Shivering – contraction of muscles produces heat

89 Heat Loss Mechanisms Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Heat loss from the skin via radiation and evaporation Skin blood vessels and capillaries are flushed with warm blood Evaporation of perspiration cools the skin

90 Body Temperature Regulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 14.21

91 Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The alimentary canal is a continuous tube by the fifth week of development Digestive glands bud from the mucosa of the alimentary tube The developing fetus receives all nutrients through the placenta In newborns, feeding must be frequent, peristalsis is inefficient, and vomiting is common

92 Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System Slide 14.92a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Teething begins around age six months Metabolism decreases with old age Middle age digestive problems Ulcers Gall bladder problems

93 Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System Slide 14.92b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Activity of digestive tract in old age Fewer digestive juices Peristalsis slows Diverticulosis and cancer are more common


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