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HOOKWORM INFECTION Brandy Kragness & Kerbe Norberg.

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Presentation on theme: "HOOKWORM INFECTION Brandy Kragness & Kerbe Norberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOOKWORM INFECTION Brandy Kragness & Kerbe Norberg

2 Geographical Range Necator americanus Sub Saharan Africa Southeast Asia China Indonesia the Americas Ancylostoma duodenale Middle East North Africa India

3 Morphology Necator americanus New World Hookworm Pair of dorsal and ventral cutting plates surrounding the buccal cavity Also have subdorsal and subventral teeth near the rear of the buccal cavity Males: 7-9 mm long Copulatory Bursa with needle-like spicules forming a distal hook Females: 9-11 mm long Vulva located in middle of body Produce 5,000-10,000 eggs per day (Life Span = 5 Years!) Eggs: μm by μm, thin shelled

4 Necator americanus dorsal and ventral cutting plates

5 Morphology Ancylostoma duodenale Old World Hookworm Two ventral cutting plates with two large teeth fused at their base A pair of small teeth are located in the capsule as well Males: 8-11 mm long Copulatory Bursa with needle-like spicules that are NOT fused distally Females: mm long Vulva located about 1/3 of the body length from the posterior end Produce 10,000-30,000 eggs per day (Life Span= 1 year) Eggs: μm by μm, thin shelled

6 Ancylostoma duodenale cutting plates with two large teeth fused

7 Transmission Ancylostoma duodenale Fecal Oral Route Penetration of filariform larvae upon human skin Transplacentally and through mothers milk Necator americanus Penetration of filariform larvae upon human skin

8 Hosts Definitive Host Humans (Children more commonly than adults) Paratenic Host A. duodenale can be transmitted through ingestion of undercooked meat (rabbit, pork, beef, lamb) Pigs can serve as a transport host for N. americanus

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10 Other Forms Ancylostoma caninum dogs, fox intestinal Ancylostoma braziliense canines, felines Cutaneous larval migrans Humans act as accidental hosts for both species

11 Pathogenesis Cutaneous Phase: Occurs when the juvenile penetrates human skin Ground Itch (Creeping Eruption) Pulmonary Phase: Occurs when juveniles break out of lung capillaries and into the throat Usually asymptomatic Dry coughing or sore throat may occur Pneumonitis (Rare)

12 Pathogenesis Intestinal Phase: Occurs when worms reach the small intestine and attach themselves Iron deficiency anemia: N. americanus can suck approximately 0.03 L of blood per day (1000 worms) A. duodenale can suck approximately 0.26 L of blood per day (100 worms) Abdominal Pain Loss of normal appetite Cognitive Impairments

13 Diagnosis Eggs or Worms in Feces Must use concentration technique Differentiating between N. americanus & A. duodenale: Use PCR-RFLP method

14 Treatment & Prevention Treatment: Mebendazole- Drug of choice Removes both species of Hookworm Single dose therapy is efficient and cheap Prevention: Education Persuasion of sanitary disposal of feces (use of latrines) Avoid using nightsoil for fertilization Mass Drug Administration (Distributing Benzimidazole Anthelmintic Drugs)

15 Public Health Concern Approximately 22.1 million DALYs (Daily Adjusted Life Years) have been lost due to Hookworm Infection Research: Vaccines currently being clinically tested for targeting: Larval worm stage Adult worm stage

16 References sht_hookworm.htm sht_hookworm.htm https://health.google.com/health/ref/Creeping+eruption Roberts, Larry S. and Jr. John Janovy. Foundations of Parisitology. 8 th Edition. November 30 th, 2008.


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