2Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Oral and maxillofacial surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.An oral and maxillofacial surgeon is a regional specialist surgeon treating the entire craniomaxillofacial complex: anatomical area of the mouth, jaws, face, skull, as well as associated structures.
3-The Extreme- OM surgery plus Plastics plus ENT, plus... These recently updated photos obtained May 5, 2009 from the Cleveland Clinic shows Connie Culp after an injury to her face and as she appears today. Five years ago, a shotgun blast left a ghastly hole where the middle of her face had been. Five months ago, she received a new face from a deceased woman.
4A multi-disciplinary team of doctors and surgeons at Cleveland Clinic performed the first near-total face transplant in the United States. In a 22-hour procedure, surgeons transplanted 80 percent of a woman's face who suffered severe facial trauma � essentially replacing her entire face, except for her upper eyelids, forehead, lower lip and chin.
5TermsAlveolar process - alveolar ridge: a ridge that forms the borders of the upper and lower jaws and contains the sockets of the teethArthroscopyCalvarial - skullCondyle - A rounded enlargement or process possessing an artculating surface.Coronal flapCraniosynostosis - Premature closing of joints or sutures in the skull.Dentition - teethGlenoid fossa- jaw jointInferior alveolar nerve -enters the mandible on the deep surface of the ramus, providing sensation to the teethGnath-jawLabia - lipMalar bone - cheekMalocclusionMaxillofacial - relating to the lower half of the faceMeniscus - cartilage that works to absorb weight and provide stabilityMouth propMental Nerve - nerve which provides sensation to the anterior aspects of the chin and lower lip as well as the buccal gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars.Orbicular - circular in outline
6Terms Osteotomy - operation in which the bone is cut through Ramus - the posterior part of the mandible that is more or less verticalReductionSagittal - [sagitt = arrow] Divides the body or structure into mirror images of right & left sides.Symphysis - the point of junction of two bones as in the two parts of the lower jaw in front: the tip of the chinTMJ - Tempero-mandibular joint, the two joints that connect the jaw to the skull.
11Teeth (3 Regions) 1. Crown is above/outside gumline Enamel covering of crownHardest partDoesn’t reproduceDegenerates with age and injuryDentinMajority of toothHarder than boneEncases pulpPulpBlood vesselsNervesConnective tissue
13Teeth (3 regions) Root Held by periodontal ligament Connects tooth to alveolar processes
14Palate Roof of the mouth Anterior portion is hard palate Posterior portion is soft palateUvula is the most posterior part of the soft palateSoft palate separates mouth from nasopharynxSoft palate rises with swallowing to prevent food going into nasal cavity
15Cheeks Lateral walls of oral cavity Consist of major muscles for mastication
16Tongue Chemoreceptors for taste Attached to floor of buccal cavity by lingual frenulumFunction in speech, propelling food through oral cavity and swallowing
17Appendicular Skeleton Skeletal SystemAxial SkeletonAlong or connecting to the midline of the bodySkullVertebral columnSternumRib CageAbout 80 bones totalAppendicular SkeletonEverything hanging off the axial skeleton
21Skull Frontal bone Protection Twice as thick as others Supraorbital foramen allow for passage of blood vessels and nerves servicing the face and head
22Skull Temporal Bone Protection External auditory canal allows for sound to enter skullOpenings at base for carotid arteries and jugular veins called carotid foramen and jugular foramenMastoid process where sternocleidomastoid muscle attaches
23Skull Occipital bone Forms posterior base of skull Large hole at base is foramen magnum where spine enters skullOccipital condyles are connections between skull and vertebraeC-1 vertebrae most superior is the atlas which supports the skull/headC-2 is the axis which allows for movement of the head
24Skull Sphenoid bone - butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull Center of base of skullKeystone of the skull (ties a lot of other bones togetherSella turcica is where the pituitary gland sits - a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull.
25Skull Ethmoid bone Forms part of nasal cavities Olfactory foramen open into nasal cavityPenetrates into frontal bone - cribiform boneNerve ending in cribiform plate where sense of smell delivered and received
26Skull Maxilla Attachment for upper teeth (alveolar processes) Infraorbital foramen for vessels and nervesAttachment for zygomatic bones/cheek bones
27Skull Mandible Lower jaw Largest and only moving bone in face Attachment for lower teeth (alveolar processes)Articulates with glenoid fossa of each temporal bone = TMJ (temporomandibular joint)
28Skull Lacrimal bone Smallest bone in face – very thin Small foramen become nasolacrimal ducts where tears drainTears come from lacrimal gland in eyebrows (keep eyes and nares moist)
29SkullHyoid boneOnly bone in body that does NOT connect directly to another boneHeld in place by ligamentsHolds tongue in place (tongue for swallowing and mastication)