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2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system Essential questions What are the functions of the digestive system? How do the functions.

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Presentation on theme: "2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system Essential questions What are the functions of the digestive system? How do the functions."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system Essential questions What are the functions of the digestive system? How do the functions of chemical and physical digestion interrelate? What are the common disorders of the digestive system? How are disorders of the digestive system treated? How do you relate the bodys use of nutrients to the digestive system? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system2

3 Understand the functions of the digestive system 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system3

4 Functions of the digestive system Mouth (buccal cavity) What digestive system functions occur in the mouth? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system4

5 Functions of the digestive system Tongue What is the digestive system function of the tongue? The tongue consists of four types of taste buds and is a very maneuverable and pliable muscle. It shifts food around in the mouth in order to assist with swallowing. 5

6 Functions of the digestive system Teeth What is the digestive system function of the teeth? mastication - chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system6

7 7 How is the tooths shape related to its function? Incisors- 8 teeth in the front and center of your mouth. You use these teeth to take bites of your food. Cupids- The 4 canine teeth are very strong, pointed corner teeth for tearing and shredding. They are larger and stronger than the incisors. Bicuspids - The 8 premolars are used for chewing and grinding food Molars - The 12 molars are the back human teeth, also used for chewing and grinding food.

8 Functions of the digestive system Salivary glands What is the digestive system function of the salivary glands? The function of the salivary glands is to make saliva and help the bolus (soft mass of chewed food) go down the esophagus easily. 8

9 Functions of the digestive system What are the functions of these oral cavity structures? Palate- the roof of the mouth separating the mouth from the nasal cavity Uvula -is a conic projection from the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate. 9

10 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 10

11 Functions of the digestive system Pharynx What is the function of the pharynx? The pharynx is the part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx. 11

12 Functions of the digestive system Esophagus What does the esophagus do? The esophagus is the tube that carries food, liquids and saliva from your mouth to the stomach. 12

13 Functions of the digestive system Stomach What are the functions of the stomach? What chemicals are released there? How long does it take for the stomach to empty? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system13

14 What are the are the functions of the stomach? What are the What are the functions of the stomach? functions of the stomach? What are the functions of the stomach? ns of the stomach? The stomach is a muscular organ located on the left side of the upper abdomen. The stomach receives food from the esophagus Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

15 The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food. Ridges of muscle tissue called rugae line the stomach Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 15

16 Functions of the digestive system 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system16 The stomach is famous for its secretion of acid, but acid is only one of four major products secreted by the gastric epithelium. Chemicals in the stomach like pepsin, rennin, and lipase interact to break down the food.

17 Digestion time varies depending on the individual. For most healthy adults, it's usually between 24 and 72 hours. After you eat, it takes about six to eight hours for food to pass through your stomach and small intestine. Food then enters your large intestine (colon) for further digestion and absorption of water. Elimination of undigested food residue through the large intestine usually begins after a total of 24 hours. Complete elimination from the body may take several days Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 17

18 Functions of the digestive system Small Intestine Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach to your large intestine (or colon) and folds many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods you eat. It has three areas called the duodenum, the ileum, and the jejunum Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 18

19 Mechanical digestion - mixes the chyme with enzymes from the small intestine and pancreas. Peristalsis moves the chyme through the small intestine. Chemical digestion. Enzymes from the small intestine and pancreas break down all four groups of molecules found in food; polysaccharides, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids. Absorption. The small intestine is the primary location in the GI tract for absorption of nutrients Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

20 The duodenum, 10 inches long, receives chyme from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter. Ducts that empty into the duodenum deliver pancreatic juice and bile from the pancreas and liver. The jejunum, about 8 feet long, is the middle section of the small intestine. The ileum, about 12 feet long, is the last section of the small intestine. It ends with the ileocecal valve (sphincter), which regulates the movement of chyme into the large intestine and prevents backward movement of material from the large intestine.

21 Functions of the digestive system Pancreas What digestive enzymes are secreted by the pancreas? What is there function? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system21

22 The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin. It also functions as an exocrine gland, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that pass to the small intestine. These enzymes help in the further breakdown of carbohydrates, protein, and fat in the chyme.

23 Functions of the digestive system Liver What are the functions of the liver? What is the function of bile glycogen? What vitamin is produced by the liver? Why is it important? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system23

24 The liver is located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm, and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines. Shaped like a cone, the liver is a dark reddish-brown organ that weighs about 3 pounds. The liver regulates most chemical levels in the blood and excretes a product called bile, which helps carry away waste products from the liver. All the blood leaving the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. More than 500 vital functions have been identified with the liver. 24

25 A few functions of the liver: Conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage (glycogen can later be converted back to glucose for energy) Processing of hemoglobin for use of its iron content (the liver stores iron) Clearing the blood of drugs and other poisonous substances Regulating blood clotting Resisting infections by producing immune factors and removing bacteria from the bloodstream 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

26 Gallbladder Located just below the liver. What is the function of the gallbladder? the gallbladder's main function is to store bile, which helps the body break down and digest fats. In response to signals, the gallbladder squeezes stored bile into the small intestine through a series of tubes called ducts. Bile helps digest fats, but the gallbladder itself is not essential. Removing the gallbladder in an otherwise healthy individual typically causes no observable problems with health or digestion yet there may be a small risk of diarrhea and fat malabsorption Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

27 Functions of the digestive system Large intestine What are the functions of the large intestines? What is its relevance to health? What type of diet promotes colon health? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system27

28 The large intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible residue of food. Material passes through the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid portions of the colon, and finally into the rectum. From the rectum, the waste is expelled from the body.

29 Functions of the digestive system Fecal transplant Allows the bacteria from the healthy stool to repopulate the gut of the patient who has lost healthy bacteria in their gut 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 29 Used to treat Clostridium difficile that grows in human intestines Symptoms range from persistent diarrhea to life- threatening inflammation of the colon to death

30 Functions of the digestive system What can healthcare professionals learn from observing stool specimens? On average, how much flatus does a person produce per day? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 30

31 Act of Digestion Define these terms: Ingestion Mastication Digestion Secretion Absorption Excretion 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system31

32 Disorders of the digestive system Anorexia Decreased or poor appetite Symptom Anorexia nervosa Eating disorder characterized by refusal to eat Psychiatric disorder 32

33 Disorders of the digestive system Caries What is another name for caries? Dental caries, otherwise known as tooth decay, is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of people worldwide; individuals are susceptible to this disease throughout their lifetime. 33

34 Disorders of the digestive system Cholecystitis What is cholecystitis? What are the symptoms? How is it treated? Cholelithiasis 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system34

35 Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe abdominal pain. In 90% of cases, acute cholecystitis is caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. The main symptom is pain in the upper right side or upper middle of the abdomen. The pain may: Be sharp, cramping, or dull Be steady Spread to the back or below the right shoulder blade 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 35

36 In the emergency room, patients with acute cholecystitis are given fluids through a vein and antibiotics to fight infection. Although cholecystitis may clear up on its own, surgery to remove the gallbladder cholecystectomy is usually needed when gallstones are present. Nonsurgical treatment includes: Antibiotics to fight infection Low-fat diet (when food can be tolerated) Pain medicines 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

37 Disorders of the digestive system Cleft palate What is cleft palate? What is its impact on health? Who have this condition? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system37

38 Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects that affect the upper lip and roof of the mouth. They happen when the tissue that forms the roof of the mouth and upper lip don't join before birth. The problem can range from a small notch in the lip to a groove that runs into the roof of the mouth and nose 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

39 Treatment - surgery to close the lip and palate. Doctors often do this surgery in several stages. Usually the first surgery is during the baby's first year. With treatment, most children with cleft lip or palate do well Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 39

40 Disorders of the digestive system Cirrhosis What is cirrhosis? Cirrhosis (sih-ROW-sis) is scarring of the liver. What are the symptoms? 40

41 Cirrhosis can be caused by a number of conditions, including long- standing inflammation, poisons, infections, and heart disease, as well as chronic alcoholism and chronic hepatitis. Treatment for cirrhosis cannot reverse liver damage, but it can stop or slow progression of the disease and reduce complications. Treatment depends on what is causing the cirrhosis and which particular complications, if any, have appeared Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 41

42 Disorders of the digestive system Constipation What is constipation? Constipation is infrequent bowel movements or difficult passage of stools. What's considered normal frequency for bowel movements varies widely. In general, however, you're probably experiencing constipation if you pass fewer than three stools a week, and your stools are hard and dry.

43 What is obstipation? Severe constipation- the colon is never truly emptied Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 43

44 Disorders of the digestive disorders Diarrhea Diarrhea describes bowel movements (stools) that are loose and watery. It is very common and usually not serious. Many people will have diarrhea once or twice each year. 44

45 The most common cause of diarrhea is a virus that infects the gut. The infection usually lasts for two days and is sometimes called "intestinal flu" or "stomach flu." Diarrhea may also be caused by: Infection by bacteria Eating foods that upset the digestive system Allergies to certain foods Medications Diseases of the intestines -Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis Diabetes 45

46 Disorders of the digestive disorders Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by bacteria or parasites. Reaction to a new food. Side effect from medications Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

47 Disorders of the digestive system Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) What are some common causes of GERD? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system47

48 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus. This action can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. The risk factors for reflux include: Alcohol Hiatal hernia (a condition in which part of the stomach moves above the diaphragm Obesity Pregnancy Scleroderma Smoking 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 48

49 Disorders of the digestive system Hepatitis Acute Chronic Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E What are some common symptoms of hepatitis ? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system49

50 The word hepatitis means an inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by one of many things including a bacterial infection, liver injury caused by a toxin (poison), and even an attack on the liver by the body's own immune system. However, the condition is usually caused by a virus. The three most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. Two other types of hepatitis virus, D and E, are rare in the United States 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

51 51 Some people who have hepatitis have no symptoms. Others may have: Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements Stomach pain Jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes

52 Treatments for hepatitis Hepatitis A - There is no treatment specifically for hepatitis A. The vast majority of patients with Hepatitis A will recover spontaneously. Hepatitis B - needs to rest. He will require a diet that is high in protein and carbohydrate - this is to repair damaged liver cells, as well as to protect the liver. Hepatitis C - A patient with Hepatitis C will be prescribed interferon Hepatitis D or E - So far, there is no effective treatment for either Hepatitis D or E Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

53 Disorders of the digestive system Irritable bowel syndrome Define irritable bowel syndrome. Discuss how will treatments relate to: Lifestyle Diet Medication 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system53

54 Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder that leads to abdominal pain and cramping, changes in bowel movements, and other symptoms. IBS is not the same as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. In IBS, the structure of the bowel is not abnormal.Crohns diseaseulcerative colitis 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

55 The intestine is connected to the brain. Signals go back and forth between the bowel and brain. These signals affect bowel function and symptoms. The nerves can become more active during stress, causing the intestines to be more sensitive and squeeze (contract) more. IBS can occur at any age, but it often begins in the teen years or early adulthood. It is twice as common in women as in men. About 1 in 6 people in the U.S. have symptoms of IBS. It is the most common intestinal problem that causes patients to be referred to a bowel specialist (gastroenterologist) Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

56 The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms. Lifestyle changes can help in some cases of IBS. Regular exercise and improved sleep habits may reduce anxiety and help relieve bowel symptoms. No specific diet can be recommended for IBS, because the condition differs from one person to another. Avoid foods and drinks that stimulate the intestines (such as caffeine, tea, or colas) Avoid large meals Increase fiber in the diet (this may improve constipation but make bloating worse) 56

57 Disorders of the digestive system Peptic ulcer What is a peptic ulcer? What causes it? How is it treated? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system57

58 An ulcer is a sore, which means it's an open, painful wound. Peptic ulcers are ulcers that form in the stomach or the upper part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer and an ulcer in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. Ulcer result when H. pylori or a drug weakens the protective mucous coating of the stomach and duodenum, allowing acid to get through to the sensitive lining beneath. Both the acid and the bacteria can irritate the lining and cause an ulcer to form Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

59 H. pylori infection is usually contracted in childhood, perhaps through food, water, or close contact with an infected individual. Infections are more common in adults older than age 60 and in developing countries. And most people with H. pylori don't display any symptoms until they're older. In fact, they may go through life unaware that they're infected Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 59

60 An ulcer may or may not have symptoms. When symptoms occur, they may include: A gnawing or burning pain in the middle or upper stomach between meals or at night Bloating Heartburn Nausea or vomiting 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 60

61 Relevance of nutrition to the digestive system Healthy dietary habits help maintain homeostasis of body systems 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system61

62 To treat an ulcer, first eliminate substances that can be causing the ulcers. If you smoke or drink alcohol, stop. If the ulcer is believed to be caused by the use of NSAIDs, they need to be stopped Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 62

63 Antibiotics. If you have H. pylori infection, then antibiotics are used. There are multiple combinations of antibiotics that are taken for one to two weeks along with a PPI. Pepto- Bismol is also part of some treatment regimens. Upper endoscopy. Some bleeding ulcers can be treated through an endoscope. Surgery. Sometimes an operation is needed if the ulcer has created a hole in the wall of the stomach or if there is serious bleeding that can't be controlled 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 63

64 Relevance of nutrition to the digestive system Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E, K Water soluble Vitamins C, B Electrolytes Calcium Chloride Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system 64

65 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system Essential questions What are the functions of the digestive system? How do the functions of chemical and physical digestion interrelate? What are the common disorders of the digestive system? How are disorders of the digestive system treated? How do you relate the bodys use of nutrients to the digestive system? 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system65


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