Presentation on theme: "Toothpaste Lab Environmental Explorations Mr. Luis A. Velazquez."— Presentation transcript:
Toothpaste Lab Environmental Explorations Mr. Luis A. Velazquez
Toothpaste Background Toothpaste is not a relatively modern phenomena. In fact, as long ago as BC Egyptians made a dental cream by mixing powdered ashes of oxen hooves with myrrh, burned egg shells, pumice, and water. Unfortunately, these early Egyptians didn't have toothbrushes but used chew sticks to apply their dental cream.
Toothpaste Background In 1000 AD Persians added burnt shells of snails and oysters along with gypsum. Unfortunately, at this point, toothpaste was still reserved for the rich. Later, in Greece and Rome, we see more abrasives being added to the powder mixture, like crushed bones and oyster shells. We know the Romans added flavoring, perhaps to help with bad breath and to make their paste more palatable. This flavoring was more or less powdered charcoal and bark In 18th century in England a tooth cleaning "powder" containing borax was sold in ceramic pots. One of the problems, which lasted well into the twentieth century, was that they were often very abrasive, causing damage to teeth.
Prior to WWII, toothpaste was packaged in small lead/tin alloy tubes. The inside of the tube was coated with wax, however, it was discovered that lead from the tubes leached into the product. It was the shortage of lead and tin during WWII that led to the use of laminated (aluminum, paper, and plastic combination) tubes. At the end of the twentieth century pure plastic tubes were used.
If you will do a toothpaste what ingredient will you use and why?
The breakthrough that transformed toothpaste into the crucial weapon against tooth decay was the finding that fluoride could dramatically reduce cavities. Dr. William Engler tested 400 preschool children and discovered a dramatic reduction in dental cavities among children treated with fluoride. This study, along with many others done around the world, led to the widespread introduction of fluoride in the 1950s.
Toothpaste We use it every single day. In fact, Americans brush their teeth nearly 200 billion times a year. We spend more than 1.6 billion dollars on it. But, have you ever wondered exactly how it helps our teeth? And how do we go about choosing which one's right for us?
Toothpaste and Mining The cleaning is done with abrasive from rock that rub plaque away. Abrasive are minerals like silica, limestone, aluminum oxide ( also use in sandpaper) Most toothpaste are made of titanium oxide Titanium dioxide is also use to make white paint. The sparkle in some toothpaste comes from mica, a mineral common in many rocks.
Active Ingredients Active Ingredients: Fluoride Antibacterial agents, most often Triclosan is used to control plaque Desensitizing agents Anti-tartar agents Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Enzymes, to enhance the antibacterial properties of saliva Xylitol, a non-sugar sweetener, which reduces levels of cariogenic (decay causing) bacteria in the mouth and enhances remineralization
Inactive Ingredients Water Detergents, to make the toothpaste foam Binding agents Humectants to retain moisture Flavoring, sweetening, and coloring agents like peppermint, spearmint, cinnamon, wintergreen, and menthol Preservatives Abrasives for cleaning and polishing Top Ten