2Function the Digestive System DigestionBreakdown of ingested foodAbsorptionPassage of nutrients into the bloodMetabolismProduction of cellular energy (ATP)
3The Digestive System Two main groups Alimentary canal. Accessory digestive organs.
4Organs of the Alimentary Canal MouthPharynxEsophagusStomachSmall intestineLarge intestineAnus
5Mouth (Oral Cavity)Vestibule; space between lips externally and teeth and gums internally.Oral cavity proper; area surrounded by the teeth and gums, containing the tongue.
6Mouth (Oral Cavity) Lips (labia); protect the anterior opening Cheeks; form the lateral walls.Hard palate; forms the anterior roof.Soft palate; forms the posterior roof.Uvula; fleshy projection of the soft palate.Tongue; lies in the middle of the cavity attached at hyoid and styloid processes of the skull, and by the lingual frenulumtongue
7PharynxMuscular tube extends from base of skull to be continues with the esophagus.It is divided into;Nasopharynx , posterior to nasal cavityOropharynx , posterior to oral cavityLaryngopharynx , posterior to larynx
8Esophagus Muscular tube, continuation of the pharynx. Runs from pharynx. through the thoracic cavity, piercing the diaphragm, to end in the stomach.Conducts food and fluid.
9StomachLocated on the left side of the upper part of the abdominal cavity.Composed of upper and lower ends, anterior and posterior surfaces, lesser and greater curves.Divided into the following regions;Cardiac region; near the upper end, (heart).FundusBodyPhylorus; funnel-shaped terminal end.
10peritoneumSerous membranes lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covers the related organs.It is attached to the stomach curves.Lesser omentum; attaches the liver to the lesser curvature.Greater omentum; attaches the greater curvature to the transverse colon, and then to the posterior body wall.Contains fat, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes and nerve plexuses;Help to insulate, cushion, and protect abdominal organs.Transmit blood, lymph and nerve supply to the abdominal organs.
11Small IntestineMuscular tube extending form the stomach (the pyloric sphincter) to the commencement of the large intestine (ileocecal valve).The body’s major digestive organ.Site of nutrient absorption into the blood stream.
12Subdivisions of the Small Intestine Fixed part;DuodenumAttached to the pyloric end of the stomach.C shape, curves around the head of the pancreas.It is the site for digestion.
13Subdivisions of the Small Intestine Mobile part;JejunumConstitutes 2/5 of the length.Attaches to the duodenum.IleumConstitutes 3/5 of the length.Extends from jejunum to commencement of large intestine, (ileocecal valve).Both Jejunum, and Ileum are the site for digestion.
14Large IntestineLarge diameter muscular tube, extends from the end of the small intestine to the rectum.Larger in diameter, but shorter than the small intestine.Frames the small intestine in the abdominal cavity.
15Structures of the Large Intestine Cecum – saclike first part of the large intestine.Appendix. hangs from the cecum.
16Structures of the Large Intestine ColonAscendingTransverseDescendingS-shaped sigmoidalRectumAnus; external body opening
21Pancreas Endocrine and exocrine gland . Lies behind the stomach. Composed of head, body, tail and uncinate process.Its head lies in the concavity of the duodenum.The body Lies behind the stomach.Its tail lies in relation to the spleen
22Liver Largest gland in the body Located on the right side of the upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragmConsists of four lobesConnected to the gall bladder via the common hepatic duct
23Gall BladderIt is a small sac found in hollow fossa of inferior surface of the liver.Connected to the liver via the common hepatic ductStores, and concentrates bile.Connected to the duodenum by the bile duct.