6Place of Articulation Labial: Two lips coming together [p] as in possum, [b] as in bearDental: Tongue against the teeth[th] of thing or the [dh] of thoughAlveolar: Alveolar ridge is the portion of the roof of the mouth just behind the upper teeth; tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge.Phones [s], [z], [t], and [d]Palatal: Roof of the mouth; blade of the tongue against this rising back of the alveolar ridgesounds [sh] (shrimp), [ch] (china), [zh] (Asian), and [jh] (jar)Velar: Movable muscular flap at the back of the roof of the mouth; back of the tongue up against the velumsounds [k] (cuckoo), [g] (goose), and [N] (kingfisher)Glottal: closing the glottis (by bringing the vocal folds together)glottal stop [q] (IPA [P]) is made by closing the glotis
7Manner of Articulation: Stops and Nasals All consonants are produced by restriction of airflowManner of Articulation; how the restriction is produced:complete or partial stoppageA stop is a consonant in which airflow is completely blocked for a short timeEnglish has voiced stops like [b], [d], and [g] as well as unvoiced stops like [p], [t], and [k].Stops are also called plosivesNasal sounds [n], [m], and [ng] are made by lowering the velum and allowing air to pass into the nasal cavity
8FricativesFricatives, airflow is constricted but not cut off completely. The turbulent airflow that results from the constriction produces a characteristic “hissing” sound.The English labiodental fricatives [f] and [v] are produced by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth, allowing a restricted airflow between the upper teeth.The dental fricatives [th] and [dh] allow air to flow around the tongue between the teeth.The alveolar fricatives [s] and [z] are produced with the tongue against the alveolar ridge, forcing air over the edge of the teeth.In the palato-alveolar fricatives [sh] and [zh] the tongue is at the back of the alveolar ridge forcing air through a groove formed in the tongue.
9Affricates, Laterals/Liquids and Taps/Flaps Affricates are stops followed immediately by fricativesEnglish [ch] (chicken); Marathi chaa (e.g., gharaachaa; of the house)Lateral or Liquids: tip of the tongue up against the alveolar ridge or the teeth, with one or both sides of the tongue lowered to allow air to flow over it[l] (learn)Tap or flap: quick motion of the tongue against the alveolar ridge[dx] (IPA [R])The consonant in the middle of the word lotus ([l ow dx ax s]) is a tap in most dialects of American Englishspeakers of many UK dialects would use a [t] instead of a tap in this word.
10Articulation of consonants: Larynx action/glottis state (1/2) Vocal cords are pulled apart. The air passes freely through the glottis. This is called the voicelessness state and sounds produced with this configuration of the vocal cords are called voiceless: p t k f θ s ʃ tʃVocal cords are pulled close together. The air passing through the glottis causes the vocal cords to vibrate. This is called the voicing state and sounds produced with this configuration of the vocal cords are called voiced: b d g v ð z ʒ dʒ
11Articulation of consonants: Larynx action/glottis state (2/2) Vocal cords are apart at the back and pulled together at the front. This is called the whisper state.Vocal cords assume the voicing state but are relaxed. This is called the murmur state.
15Basic of syllables“Syllable is a unit of spoken language consisting of a single uninterrupted sound formed generally by a Vowel and preceded or followed by one or more consonants.”Vowels are the heart of a syllable (Most Sonorous Element) (svayam raajate iti svaraH)Consonants act as sounds attached to vowels.
16Syllable structure A syllable consists of 3 major parts:- Onset (C)Nucleus (V)Coda (C)Vowels sit in the Nucleus of a syllableConsonants may get attached as Onset or Coda.Basic structure - CV
17Possible syllable structures The Nucleus is always presentOnset and Coda may be absentPossible structuresVCVVCCVC
18syllable theories Prominence Theory Chest Pulse Theory Sonority Theory E.g. entertaining /entəteɪnɪŋ/The peaks of prominence: vowels /e ə eɪ ɪ/Number of syllables: 4Chest Pulse TheoryBased on muscular activitiesSonority TheoryBased on relative soundness of segment within words
19Introduction to sonority theory “The Sonority of a sound is its loudness relative to other sounds with the same length, stress and speech.”Some sounds are more sonorousWords in a language can be divided into syllablesSonority theory distinguishes syllables on the basis of sounds.
20Sonority hierarchy Defined on the basis of amount of sound associated The sonority hierarchy is as follows:-Vowels (a, e, i, o, u)Liquids (y, r, l, v)Nasals (n, m)Fricatives (s, z, f,…..sh, th etc.)Affricates (ch, j)Stops (b, d, g, p, t, k)
21Sonority scale Obstruents can be further classified into:- Fricatives AffricatesStops
22Sonority theory & syllables “A Syllable is a cluster of sonority, defined by a sonority peak acting as a structural magnet to the surrounding lower sonority elements.”Represented as waves of sonority or Sonority Profile of that syllableNucleusOnset Coda
23Sonority sequencing principle “The Sonority Profile of a syllable must rise until its Peak(Nucleus), and then fall.”Peak(Nucleus)Onset Coda
25Maximal onset principle “The Intervocalic consonants are maximally assigned to the Onsets of syllables in conformity with Universal and Language- Specific Conditions.”Determines underlying syllable divisionExampleDIPLOMADIP LO MA & DI PLO MA
26Syllable Structure: a more detailed look Count of no. of syllables in a word is roughly/intuitively the no. of vocalic segments in a word.Thus, presence of a vowel is an obligatory element in the structure of a syllable. This vowel is called “nucleus”.Basic Configuration: (C)V(C).Part of syllable preceding the nucleus is called the onset.Elements coming after the nucleus are called the coda.Nucleus and coda together are referred to as the rhyme.S ≡ Syllable, O ≡ OnsetR ≡ Rhyme, N ≡ NucleusCo ≡ Coda
28Syllable Structure: Examples ‘may’‘opt’‘air’ No Coda. No Onset. No Coda, No Onset.
29Syllable Structure Open Syllable: ends in vowel Closed syllable: ends in consonant or consonant clusterLight Syllable: A syllable which is open and ends in a short vowelGeneral Description – CV.Example, ‘air’.Heavy Syllable: Closed syllables or syllables ending in diphthongExample: ‘opt’Example, ‘may’
30Syllabification: Determining Syllable Boundaries Given a string of syllables (word), what is the coda of one and the onset of another?In a sequence such as VCV, where V is any vowel and C is any consonant, is the medial C the coda of the first syllable (VC.V) or the onset of the second syllable (V.CV)?To determine the correct groupings, there are some rules, two of them being the most important and significant:Maximal Onset Principle,Sonority Hierarchy
32Data The Carnegie Mellon University Pronouncing Dictionary machine-readable pronunciation dictionary for North American English that contains over 125,000 words and their transcriptions.The current phoneme set contains 39 phonemes
33“Parallel” CorpusPhoneme Example Translation AA odd AA D AE at AE T AH hut HH AH T AO ought AO T AW cow K AW AY hide HH AY D B be B IY
34“Parallel” Corpus cntd Phoneme Example TranslationCH cheese CH IY ZD dee D IYDH thee DH IY EH Ed EH DER hurt HH ER TEY ate EY TF fee F IYG green G R IY NHH he HH IYIH it IH TIY eat IY TJH gee JH IY
35The tasksFirst obtain the Carnegie Mellon University's Pronouncing DictionaryTrain and Test the following Statistical Machine Learning AlgorithmsHMM - For HMM you can use either Natural Language Toolkit or you can use GIZA++ with MOSES.
36Tasks (cntd) Report all the results using 5-fold cross Validation Compare all the results obtained in the previous steps in terms ofPrecisionRecallF-ScoreFinally do a detailed error analysis.