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Physical Development Ages 1-3

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Development Ages 1-3"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Development Ages 1-3

2 Physical growth and Development Ages 1-3


4 Physical growth and Development
Toddlers: Most children begin walking a few unsteady steps about the time of their first birthday Toddler is frequently defined as: children from the age of first walking, usually around twelve months, until the age of 3 years By the age 4 children are able to walk steadily, hop, jump, and run easily At this age it is important to put aside some time to exercise and play in order to exercise muscles and use stored up energy

5 Physical growth and Development
Height and Weight: The influences of heredity and environment are evident on the height and weight during age 2 As a result a tall 2 year old will most likely be a tall adult AVERAGE HEIGHT WEIGHT Age Height Weight 1 year 29.8” cm 22.5 pounds 2 years 34.0” cm 27.7 pounds 3 years 37.7” cm 32.4 pounds

6 Physical Growth and Development
Proportion and Posture: Until age 2 a child’s head, chest, and abdomen all have the same circumference because all three grow at a rapid rate Between ages 2 and 3 the chest becomes larger than the head and abdomen The rapid growth of a child’s arms, legs, and trunk during this time improve their balance and motor skills By age 2 the toddler stands straighter, abdomen still protrudes, head is still located forward and knees and elbows remain slightly bent While running they keep balance by holding arms outstretched and by pushing their belly forward By age 3 the posture improves greatly has spine has strengthened and child has lost some baby weight

7 Physical growth and development
Teeth: One year olds have 8 teeth Two years olds have 16 teeth as 8 more come in during the year By three a child has a total of 20 teeth In order to help children keep their teeth healthy a parent should do certain things like increasing calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intake within the first two years Furthermore, there is a protective mechanism inherited from the parents that discourages decay. Ask your dentist if your child has this mechanism or not to ensure further care if needed

8 Physical Growth and Development
Motor Skills: Physical development proceeds according to these patterns: Head  Foot Near  Far Simple  Complex - Motor Skills are broken into two categories Large Motor Skills: abilities that depend on the use and control of the large muscles of the back, legs, shoulders and arms Small Motor Skills: abilities that depend on the use and control of the finer muscles of the wrists, fingers, and ankles. Many of these skills require hand eye coordination.

9 Physical growth and development
Motor Skills Continued: Children do not acquire physical skills as predictably as they had within their first year Some children learn later or sooner than average because of these variations: Physical size Health and diet Interest Temperament Opportunities for play

10 Physical growth and development
Large Motor Skills: - Physical exercise and repeated practice of actions are necessary for this development Typically slow and steady, but follows a pattern Builds upon earlier learning Ex) children learn to go up the stairs on hands and knees  walk up the stairs with help  use the railing for help but continue to place both feet on each step  at age three alternate feet on each step

11 Physical growth and development
Large Motor Skills Continued: Age Large Motor Skills years Walking well Stoops to pick up toys 1.5 – 2 years Stands on one foot Throws object overhand years Climbs everything pushes on wheeled toys 2.5 – 3 years Runs, but can’t stop smoothly Kicks balls Itsy Bitsy Spider and Head and Shoulders 3 – 4 years Walks on tiptoes Rides a tricycle

12 Physical Growth and Development
Small Motor Skills: - At two year olds have improved manipulation: skillful use of hands and fingers Age Small Motor Skills 1 – 1.5 years Turn pages of a book (a couple of pages at a time) Scribbles 1.5 – 2 years Buttons large buttons Turns door knobs 2 – 2.5 years Strings large beads Builds 6 block tower 2.5 – 3 years Draws lines and circles Screws lids off containers 3 - 4 years Cuts with scissors Uses forks and spoons with little spilling

13 Providing Care for Children ages 1-3

14 Providing Care Feeding:
Food at this child’s age influences eating habits for the rest of their lives 1 year old At this age babies enjoy baby food, mashed/boiled potatoes, rice, cooked vegetables Give children at this age finger food to improve coordination and encourage self-feeding 2 year old At two mealtimes often become battle of the wits. Babies want to feed themselves and choose what to eat when. Create dislikes and like but encourage child to try something they did not like one meal in another Feeds themselves with a fork while experimenting with textures Conversation may distract child while eating but socialization is very important during a meal

15 Providing care Feeding Continued: 3 year old
At this age children eat the same food as the rest of the family but still requires rough meats to be cut up in order to prevent choking Requires food for growth and energy Needs 3 meals and nutritional snacks throughout the day

16 Providing Care Choosing Food:
It is important at this age to start your child on a healthy diet Give meals that are low in salt, low in preservatives and high in vitamins There are 5 ways to promote interest in nutritious foods to toddlers Color: a variety of bright colors Texture: use a variety of textures ie) crunchy, smooth, seedy Shape: cut food like sandwiches and fruit into new interesting shapes Temperature: young kids are sensitive to temperature. Keep cool meals with cool items and hot with hot items Ease of Eating: cut food so a child is able to digest it better

17 Providing Care Mealtime Tips:
Keeps meals on a regular schedule so child does not have to wait Use a dish with sides for the child to push the spoon against in order to get the food Use child-sized utensils Never use food as a punishment ex) you will get a cookie once you finish your vegetables. This makes the child believe that cookies are good and vegetables bad. Set good table manners as children imitate others

18 Providing care Bathing:
During ages 1 -3 children establish important attitudes about personal hygiene Most children are having daily baths at this time Must be supervised at all times Age 1: rubs washcloth over face and stomach Age 2: wash, rinse, and dry body except for neck and back Age 3: bathe themselves with minimum supervision

19 Providing care Caring for Teeth:
At 18 months encourage children to brush their teeth During this time, they will only swish their front teeth so they still need adult help Use kid tooth paste – it can be swallowed without causing the child to feel ill afterwards By age 3 show your kid and help them to floss their teeth

20 Providing care Dressing:
After first birthday babies can pull off clothing items like socks and hats During the ages months they children try to help while getting dressed During the ages 18 – 24 months toddlers can undress themselves completely At two years can put on pants but struggle with shirts 3 year olds can dress independently except for challenging buttons or tying shoe laces

21 Providing care Choosing Clothes:
There are three important items to consider while buying clothes for a baby Comfort: fabric that allows freedom of movement, must be the right size Durability: must be made of strong thread, fasteners are firmly attached - Natural Fibers: absorbs heat - Synthetic Fibers: durable, wrinkle resistant, quick drying 3) Economy: baby clothes can be expensive so try to choose clothes that are on sale or that has some growing room. Also, try buying clothing that are on sale

22 Providing care Sleeping:
At the age of two, children no longer take their morning nap but sleep longer during the night Children begin to call parents back into their room for water or another story because they want someone to be near them At the age of 3, naps are given up all together and often get out of bed because they have had nightmares During both ages the fear of the dark begins.

23 Providing care Toilet Training:
Toilet training should begin when a child is physically mature and emotionally ready Physically Mature Ability to control sphincter muscles – muscles that control elimination Recognize when body is telling ‘it is time to go’ Never push potty training onto a child. Encourage them and try again another time if unsuccessful. Use absorbable training pants and a toilet seat or potty for the child so they can learn to use the washroom themselves Some children are scared of the flush of the toilet, flush once they leave the bathroom

24 Providing care Safety:
There are basic safety hazards one must follow while having children, these include: Wipe up spills immediately to prevent falls Make sure all open windows have secure screens Remove furniture that can tip easily Keep appliances unplugged Place safety caps on electrical hazards Lock all drawers, doors, and cupboards

25 Cute babies

26 bibliography

27 bibliography Baby's First Steps. (2007, February 18). Retrieved February 2012, from Youtube: Brisbane, H. E. (1994). The Developing Child. USA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Development Milestones. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Child Development: 4%20Foster%20Parenting%20and%20Child%20Development/HO%206%20Developmental%20Milestones.p df Parenting. (2005, May 5). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Missouri Families: Physical Development age 1-2. (February, ). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Raising Children: Physical Development age 2-3. (2010, January 14). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Raising Children Network: Word Scramble Maker. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2012, from The Teachers Corner:

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