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2011 AMO Annual Conference Insight Breakfast Sponsor: Public Health Ontario & Association of Local Public Health Agencies Straight from the Headlines:

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Presentation on theme: "2011 AMO Annual Conference Insight Breakfast Sponsor: Public Health Ontario & Association of Local Public Health Agencies Straight from the Headlines:"— Presentation transcript:

1 2011 AMO Annual Conference Insight Breakfast Sponsor: Public Health Ontario & Association of Local Public Health Agencies Straight from the Headlines: Community Water Fluoridation

2 Did you know? 2 More than 90 national and international professional health organizations endorse fluoridation Approximately 75% of Ontarians (over 10 million) live in communities with fluoridated drinking water Tooth decay is the single most common chronic disease in Canada There is an estimated $38 in avoided costs for dental treatment for every $1 invested in community water fluoridation

3 Supporters of Fluoridation 3

4 What do the supporters say? Health Canada continues to recognize the benefits of community water fluoridation, and supports it as a safe and an effective method to prevent tooth decay Chief Medical Officer of Health for Ontario, Dr. Arlene King: I am very concerned about the loss of fluoridated drinking water in certain communities in spite of consistent evidence that water fluoridation is safe and effective. 4

5 5 ?

6 The Panel 6 Dr. Clive Friedman Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry Pediatric Oral Health and Dentistry, London, Ontario Dr. Bryna Warshawsky Associate Medical Officer of Health Middlesex-London Health Unit Al Edmondson Mayor, Township of Middlesex Centre Moderated by Linda Stewart, Executive Director, Association of Local Public Health Agencies (alPHa)

7 Dental Caries - Early Childhood Infectious Disease 7

8 Early Childhood Infectious Disease Dental Decay can begin as soon as the baby teeth begin to erupt into the mouth The early stage of decay is visible as brighter white areas where calcium has leached from the tooth The teeth look normal but always look behind the teeth Left untreated, this totally PREVENTABLE disease progresses rapidly to the point the toothache and dental abscesses can develop 8 Early stage – decalcification Behind the front teeth Left untreated it will be too late to save Pain and infection are the result of decay of teeth Infected teeth cause pain and can lead to many issues

9 9 Early Childhood Infectious Disease … continued

10 Fluoridation and Oral Health 10

11 Fluoridation and Oral Health: Outline 11 Discovery of fluoride How fluoride works Benefits and safety Treatment versus prevention Indicators of oral health and access to dental care

12 12

13 Discovery of Fluoride Early 1900s - High rates of mottling of teeth (fluorosis) noted in some cities 1930s – Fluoride identified as the cause Cities with high rates of fluorosis also had little dental decay Determined optimal fluoride level to prevent decay with minimal fluorosis – 1 ppm Conducted experiment by adjusting fluoride levels in 4 sets of cities 13

14 What Can Fluoride Do? Prevents decay Causes fluorosis At very high levels, skeletal fluorosis which causes bone to be brittle At very high levels, may increase risk of fractures 14

15 How Does Fluoride Work? To prevent decay After tooth erupts Incorporated into the tooth as it repairs itself from acid attacks Fluoride incorporated into the surface of the tooth makes it more resistant to acid Fluorosis Before tooth erupts Less than 6 years of age; 22-26 months highest risk period 15 F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F- F-F-

16 Fluoride Numbers 0.5 to 0.8 mg/L (ppm) 0.7 mg/L (ppm) Optimal level to adjust fluoride in drinking water 1.5 mg/L (ppm) Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) of fluoride in drinking water Between 1.5 and 2.4 mg/L (ppm) raise professional and public awareness to control excess fluoride exposure 16

17 Fortification Vitamin D in milk and soy products to support healthy bones and teeth Iodine in salt to prevent thyroid disease Folic acid in flour to prevent neural tube defects 17

18 How Do We Know that Fluoride in Drinking Water is Safe and Effective? Systematic reviews of published literature Published literature retrieved Reviewed for quality Summarized by experts Results synthesized to draw conclusions by groups of experts 18

19 Systematic Reviews 2000, UK - University of York 2001, US - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2007, Australia - Government of Australia 2010, Canada - Health Canada 19

20 Systematic Reviews Conclude Benefit Fluoride prevents tooth decay Still effective when other sources of fluoride available, although effect less pronounced and so more difficult to detect 20 Safety Dental fluorosis At the levels used to fluoridate water, evidence does not indicate increased risk of any other health concerns including: cancer, impact on IQ, thyroid problems, fractures, skeletal fluorosis

21 Fluoride Effective in Other Ages Original studies in children Adults and elderly prone to root decay Studies have demonstrated protection in adults More important as adults and seniors keep their teeth 21

22 Fluorosis Prevention Maintain fluoride levels in water at or below 0.7 ppm No toothpaste or non-fluoridated toothpaste for young children, except as directed by their dentist After that, pea size amount with parental supervision and spitting out No fluoride supplements in the form of pills or drops 22

23 Prevention Versus Treatment Prevention Treatment Pain of cavity Infection from cavity, local or systemic Cosmetic concerns, self esteem issues, chewing problems Procedures, including general anesthesia Lost time from work and school Cost of dental work 23 vs

24 Prevention is Particularly Important When Treatment is Not Available 24

25 Programs for Children 0-17 Years Children in Need of Dental Treatment (CINOT) Urgent needs for low income children Healthy Smiles Ontario – Began in fall 2010 Prevention and treatment for low income children (< $20,000 net family income) Ontario Works - Prevention and Treatment 25

26 Programs for Adolescents and Adults Ontario Works – limited treatment Basically no other public programs available So need private insurance or ability to pay 26

27 Canadian Health Measures Survey Health Canada Survey; 2007 – 2009; 15 locations in Canada 5,600 participants; ages 6 to 79 years Percent of Canadians with no dental insurance: 32% 20% higher income 36.5% middle income 50%lower income 27

28 Percent Avoiding a Dental Visit in Past Year Due to Cost 17% 9% high income 20%middle income 35% low income 28

29 Percentage of children who have ever had at least one cavity 6 – 11 year olds 57% 52%higher income 61%middle income 61%lower income 29 12-19 year olds 59% 51% 58% 70%

30 Percent Brushing Teeth at Least Twice a Day 73% 76%higher income 72%middle income 66%lower income 30

31 Percent with Fluorosis in Children Ages 6-11 Years No severe fluorosis and numbers of moderate fluorosis too low to allow reporting 4% mild fluorosis 12% very mild fluorosis NOTE : mild and very mild fluorosis is generally only noticeable by a dental professional 31

32 Conclusions Fluoride reduces tooth decay Fluorosis is known risk and rates are low in Canada due to policies and educational messages Evidence does not indicate any other health risk No evidence of impact on the environment Levels are closely monitored Cost is low 32

33 Conclusions … continued Access to dental care for low income adolescents and adults is a problem Caries rates are higher in children with lower income Adjusted fluoride in drinking water provides equitable access to tooth decay prevention regardless of age, socioeconomic status, compliance with dental practices or access to dental care 33

34 A Board of Health Perspective 34

35 A Board of Health Perspective Identify experts you trust Ask questions Get the facts Recognize the need to balance perspectives 35 CommunityProsperity Equality Liberty

36 A Board of Health Perspective - continued MOST IMPORTANTLY – Support programs that will improve the health of the population you serve 36

37 Questions 37

38 Thank you To the panel: Al Edmondson Dr. Bryna Warshawsky Dr. Clive Friedman And the presentation organizers: Anne Simard, Public Health Ontario Linda Stewart, Association of Local Public Health Agencies Phat Ha, Public Health Ontario Louise LePage, Eastern Ontario Health Unit Shawna Gutfreund, Public Health Ontario 38

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