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Digestive System HS I. What are the structures and functions of the Digestive System? Objective 2.07 & 2.08 Essential questions: What are the structures.

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Presentation on theme: "Digestive System HS I. What are the structures and functions of the Digestive System? Objective 2.07 & 2.08 Essential questions: What are the structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digestive System HS I

2 What are the structures and functions of the Digestive System? Objective 2.07 & 2.08 Essential questions: What are the structures of the digestive system? What are the fxs & disorders of the digestive system?

3 Structures of the digestive system Digestive system Also known as: Alimentary Canal Digestive Tract Gastrointestinal Tract Upper GI Lower GI Approximately 30 in length from mouth to anus 3

4 1.Physical breakdown of food 2.Chemical digestion of food into the end products of fat, carbohydrates and protein. 3.Absorb nutrients into blood capillaries of the small intestines 4.Eliminate waste products of digestion Functions of the Digestive System

5 DIGESTION – the process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by body cells. ENZYMES – chemical substances that promote chemical reactions in living things. ALIMENTARY CANAL – digestive tract or gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract). A 30 ft. tube from mouth to anus. PERITONEUM – double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity (Lining of the Digestive System)

6 Primary Organs of Digestion Mouth Esophogus Stomach Small Intestines Large Intestines (a.k.a Colon

7 Accessory Organs of Digestion Mouth Tongue Teeth Salivary Glands Pancreas Liver Gall Bladder

8 Structure of Organs of Digestion - Mouth A.K.A. Buccal Cavity Food enters digestive system through mouth Inside of mouth covered with mucous membrane Roof of mouth is HARD PALATE (bone) and SOFT PALATE UVULA – flap that hangs off soft palate – prevents food from going up the nose when you swallow

9 Structure of Organs of Digestion - Tongue Attached to floor of mouth Helps in chewing and swallowing Made of skeletal muscle attached to four bones Taste buds on the surface – sweet, sour, bitter, salty

10 Structure of Organs of Digestion – Teeth GINGIVA – gums, support and protect teeth MASTICATION – chewing, teeth help in mechanical digestion DECIDUOUS (primary) teeth – 20 baby teeth Permanent (secondary) teeth – 32 adult teeth

11 Structure of Organs of Digestion – Teeth Incisors – cutting and chopping food Cuspids – ripping food Bicuspids – ripping food Molars – crushing and grinding food

12 Structure of Organs of Digestion – Salivary Glands Three pairs of glands – parotid, sublingual, submandibular PAROTID – largest salivary glands, they become inflamed during mumps Secrete saliva

13 Structures of the digestive system Pharynx (throat) – permits swallowing food and liquids Nasopharynx Oropharynx Hypopharynx - 13

14 Structure of Organs of Digestion – Esophagus Muscular tube, 10 long Connects pharynx and stomach Esophageal wall layers –Mucosa –Submucosa –Muscular –External serous

15 Structure of Organs of Digestion – Stomach Upper part of abdominal cavity - LUQ CARDIAC SPHINCTER – circular layer of muscle, controls passage of food into stomach from esophagus PYLORIC SPHINCTER – valve, regulates the entrance of food into duodenum RUGAE – mucous coat lining of stomach in folds when the stomach is empty Stomach has muscular coat that allows it to contract (peristalsis) and push food into the small intestine

16 Structure of Organs of Digestion – Stomach

17 Structure of Organs of Digestion – Small Intestines DUODENUM – first segment, curves around pancreas, 12 long JEJUNUM – next section, 8 ft. long ILEUM – final portion, feet long ABSORPTION – in small intestine, digested food passes into bloodstream and on to body cells, undigestible passes on to large intestine

18 Accessory Organs of Digestion - Pancreas Located behind stomach Exocrine function – secretes digestive enzymes Also has endocrine function

19 Accessory Organs of Digestion - Liver Largest organ in the body Located below the diaphragm, upper right quadrant Connected to gallbladder and small intestine by ducts Functions: Produce and store glucose in the form of GLYCOGEN Detoxify alcohol, drugs and other harmful substances Manufacture blood proteins Manufactures bile Store Vitamins A, D and B complex

20 Accessory Organs of Digestion – Gall Bladder Small green organ, inferior surface of the liver Stores and concentrates BILE from the liver until needed by the body When fatty foods digested, bile released by gallbladder for digestion

21 CHYME – semi-liquid food Approx 2 in diameter Also called the colon CECUM – lower right portion of large intestine APPENDIX is finger-like projection off cecum RECTUM – last portion of large intestine ANUS – external opening Accessory Organs of Digestion – Large Intestines

22 Understand the functions of the digestive system 22

23 Digestion BOLUS – soft, pliable ball – creating from chewing and addition of saliva – it slides down esophagus PERISTALSIS – wavelike motions, moves food along esophagus, stomach and intestines In the mouth… saliva softens food to make it easier to swallow PTYALIN in saliva converts starches into simple sugar (maltose) under nervous control – just thinking of food can cause your mouth to water

24 Digestion In the stomach… gastric (digestive) juices are released Acid and enzymes Pepsin – enzyme that breakdowns proteins stomach walls churn and mix (This mixture is chyme) small amount of chyme enters duodenum at a time - controlled by pyloric sphincter takes 2-4 hours for stomach to empty

25 Digestion More about gastric juices… Enteroendocrine glands –Gastrin – stimulates secretion of gastric acid by Parietal cells of the stomach –HCL (gastric acid) and intrinsic factor (glycoprotein-absorption of B12 in small intestines) Chief type cells –Pepsinogen – converted into pepsin by gastric acid Mucus cells –alkaline mucus Rennin – digestion of milk proteins

26 Digestion In the small intestine… where digestion is completed and absorption occurs addition of enzymes from pancreas and bile from liver/gallbladder Villi – small finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of intestinal wall – increase surface area of the intestinal wall for increased absorption area

27 Digestion In the small intestine-pancreas… enzymes release into the small intestines amylase – breaks down starch steapsin – breaks down fat pancreatic proteases – breaks down proteins

28 Digestion In the large intestine… regulation of H 2 O balance by absorbing large quantities back into bloodstream bacterial action on undigested food – decomposed products excreted through colon – bacteria form moderate amounts of B complex and Vitamin K gas formation – 1-3 pints/day, pass it through rectum (FLATULENCE) 14 times a day, bacteria produce the gas FECES – undigested semi-solid consisting of bacteria, waste products, mucous and cellulose DEFECATION – when large intestine fills, defecation reflex triggered – colon and rectal muscles contract while internal sphincter relaxes – external anal sphincter under conscious control

29 Functions of the digestive system Fecal transplant Allows the bacteria from the healthy stool to repopulate the gut of the patient who has lost healthy bacteria in their gut Used to treat Clostridium difficile that grows in human intestines Symptoms range from persistent diarrhea to life- threatening inflammation of the colon to death

30 What are the characteristics and treatment of common digestive disorders?

31 Disorders of the digestive system Anorexia Decreased or poor appetite Symptom Anorexia nervosa Eating disorder characterized by refusal to eat Psychiatric disorder 31

32 Disorders of the digestive system Caries Tooth decay 32

33 Disorders of the digestive system Cleft palate Fissure or opening – non fusion of the palate Abnormal facial development during gestation – congenital deformity Speech, hearing, and psychosocial problems Babies have breathing problems while nursing/suckling 33

34 Heartburn (indigestion) Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Acid reflux Symptoms – burning sensation Rx – avoid chocolate and peppermint, coffee, citrus, fried or fatty foods, tomato products – stop smoking – take antacids – dont lay down 2-3 hours after eating

35 GASTROENTERITIS Inflammation of mucous membrane lining of stomach and intestine Common cause = virus Symptoms – diarrhea and vomiting for hours Complication = dehydration See a Gastroenterologist

36 Peptic Ulcer Sore or lesion that forms in the mucosal lining of the stomach Gastric ulcers in the stomach and duodenal ulcers in the duodenum Cause – H. pylori (bacteria) is primary cause Lifestyle factors that contribute: cigarette smoking, alcohol, stress, certain drugs Symptoms – burning pain in abdomen, between meals and early morning, may be relieved by eating or taking antacid DX – x-ray, presence of bacteria Rx – H2 blockers (drugs) that block release of histamine, avoid spicy food

37 APPENDICITIS When appendix becomes inflamed If it ruptures, bacteria from appendix can spread to peritoneal cavity Symptoms – RLQ pain (rebound pain) Rx – Antibiotics and appendectomy

38 Hepatitis HEPATITIS A Infectious hepatitis Cause – virus Spread through contaminated food or H 2 O – fecal- oral Treat symptoms, rest, no ETOH or fatty foods, stay hydrated HEPATITIS B Caused by virus found in blood Transmitted by blood transfusion or being stuck with contaminated needles (drug addicts) Health care workers at risk and should be vaccinated Use standard precautions for prevention

39 Hepatitis HEPATITIS C Chronic infectious hepatitis Cause – virus (HCV) Spread through blood to blood contact Transmitted by blood transfusion or being stuck with contaminated needles (drug addicts) HEPATITIS D Caused by virus found in blood Only occur in people who have Hepatitis B – transmitted at same time Super Hepatitis – Delta Hepatitis

40 Hepatitis HEPATITIS E Acute viral infectious hepatitis Cause – virus (HEV) Spread through fecal-oral transmission Lethal – no cure Mostly in under developed countries due to poor sanitation

41 CIRRHOSIS Chronic, progressive disease of liver Normal tissue replaced by fibrous connective tissue 75% caused by excessive alcohol consumption S&S – edema, ascites, jaundice, fatigue, itching, bruise easily, weight loss, red palms, confusion Rx – no cure, avoid Tylenol and ibuprofen, low Na diet, stop ETOH consumption,

42 CHOLECYSTITIS Inflammation of gallbladder Symptoms– RUQ pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, pale stool, jaundice Causes – Gallstones (cholelithiasis), bile duct blockage Rx – bed rest, antibiotics, pain medications, hospitalization, Cholecystectomy (surgical removal of gallbladder)

43 CHOLELITHIASIS Gallstones Can block the bile duct causing pain and digestive disorders Small ones may pass on their own, large ones surgically removed CHOLECYSTECTOMY

44 IRRATABLE BOWEL SYDROME - IBS Spastic colon – chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating Diarrhea or constipation Urgency for bm Etiology - Unknown No cure Rx – diet, stress relief, exercise, medication

45 Other Disorders DIARRHEA Loose, watery, frequent bowel movements when feces pass along colon too rapidly Caused by infection, poor diet, nervousness, toxic substances or irritants in food CONSTIPATION When defecation delayed, feces become dry and hard Rx – diet with cereals, fruits, vegetables, (roughage), drinking plenty of fluids, exercise, and avoiding tension OBSTIPATION Blockage of intestines – severe constipation JAUNDICE Yellow color of the skin

46 Relevance of nutrition to the digestive system Healthy dietary habits help maintain homeostasis of body systems 46

47 Relevance of nutrition to the digestive system Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E, K Water soluble Vitamins C, B Electrolytes Calcium Chloride Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium 47

48 QUESTIONS


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