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The skull Forensic anthropology. The Skull Total # - 22 Total # - 22 8 paired, 6 unpaired 8 paired, 6 unpaired Cranium – skull without mandible Cranium.

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Presentation on theme: "The skull Forensic anthropology. The Skull Total # - 22 Total # - 22 8 paired, 6 unpaired 8 paired, 6 unpaired Cranium – skull without mandible Cranium."— Presentation transcript:

1 The skull Forensic anthropology

2 The Skull Total # - 22 Total # paired, 6 unpaired 8 paired, 6 unpaired Cranium – skull without mandible Cranium – skull without mandible Calvarium – cranium without face Calvarium – cranium without face Sutures: serrated and interdigitated Sutures: serrated and interdigitated The only moveable (synovial) joints The only moveable (synovial) joints Occipital condyles and C1 Occipital condyles and C1 TMJ TMJ

3 The Frontal Bone Unpaired Unpaired Recognizable by the sinuses Recognizable by the sinuses Articulations? Articulations? Individual identification: unfused frontal (called metopic suture), variable sinuses Individual identification: unfused frontal (called metopic suture), variable sinuses 2 growth centers (R&L) 2 growth centers (R&L)

4 Is the frontal useful? Yes! Yes! Age – the metopic suture fuses ~2-4 years Age – the metopic suture fuses ~2-4 years Sex determination Sex determination Supercilliary arch / frontal boss Supercilliary arch / frontal boss Supraorbital margin Supraorbital margin Temporal line Temporal line

5 The Parietals Paired Paired Rectangular shaped Rectangular shaped Articulations? Articulations? Individual ID: variable sutures and foramen placement Individual ID: variable sutures and foramen placement Growth – single growth center Growth – single growth center

6 Are the parietals useful? Mostly for age Mostly for age General thickness becomes more uniform with adulthood General thickness becomes more uniform with adulthood Fuses with parietal only with advanced age Fuses with parietal only with advanced age

7 The occipital Unpaired Unpaired Ovoid with a big hole in it… Ovoid with a big hole in it… Articulations? Articulations? Individual ID: Inca bone p. 50 Individual ID: Inca bone p. 50 (usually triangular or rectangular) (usually triangular or rectangular) Growth - 4 parts: squamous, 2 laterals, basial (pars basilaris usually survives) Growth - 4 parts: squamous, 2 laterals, basial (pars basilaris usually survives)

8 Is the occipital useful? Yes!!! Yes!!! Age Age Pars basilaris Pars basilaris Fuses to squamous portion at 1-3 years Fuses to squamous portion at 1-3 years Fuses to the rest at 5-7 years Fuses to the rest at 5-7 years Fuses to sphenoid during mid teens Fuses to sphenoid during mid teens Sex Sex External occipital protuberance External occipital protuberance Superior and inferior nuchal lines Superior and inferior nuchal lines

9 The temporals Paired Paired Circular (with a large process for ear canal) Circular (with a large process for ear canal) Articulations? Articulations? Individual ID: suture variation Individual ID: suture variation Growth – 3 parts: petrous, squamousal, tympanic ring) Growth – 3 parts: petrous, squamousal, tympanic ring)

10 Are the temporal useful? Age Age The 3 parts are joined by ~5 years old The 3 parts are joined by ~5 years old Sex Sex Mastoid process Mastoid process

11 The sphenoid Unpaired Unpaired Butterfly shaped Butterfly shaped Articulations? Articulations? Growth – many centers fuse by birth into 3 parts (wings separated by body) which fuse by 1 year old Growth – many centers fuse by birth into 3 parts (wings separated by body) which fuse by 1 year old

12 The zygomatics Paired facial bones Paired facial bones Triangular with maxillary, frontal, and temporal processes Triangular with maxillary, frontal, and temporal processes Forms lateral wall of orbit Forms lateral wall of orbit Articulations? Articulations? Individual ID: variable sutures Individual ID: variable sutures Growth – 1 center, Growth – 1 center,

13 Are the zygomatics useful? Age Age Zygomatics fully formed by 2-3 years old Zygomatics fully formed by 2-3 years old Race Race Suture pattern of the zygomaxillary junction generally related to race Suture pattern of the zygomaxillary junction generally related to race

14 The ethmoid Found at the base of the frontal, anterior to the sphenoid Found at the base of the frontal, anterior to the sphenoid Very uniquely shaped Very uniquely shaped Forms part of the orbit (medial wall) Forms part of the orbit (medial wall) Need to know Need to know Crista galli Crista galli Perpendicular plate Perpendicular plate

15 Other bones of the face Not typically found, not particularly useful in ID Not typically found, not particularly useful in ID The NASALS The NASALS The inferior nasal conchae (found in nasal aperture internally, posterior to the nasal bones The inferior nasal conchae (found in nasal aperture internally, posterior to the nasal bones The lacrimals –tear ducts The lacrimals –tear ducts The palatines – at back of mouth, found behind palatine process of maxillae The palatines – at back of mouth, found behind palatine process of maxillae Vomer – small wedge of bone btw pterygoid processes of sphenoid (bisects nasal cavity) Vomer – small wedge of bone btw pterygoid processes of sphenoid (bisects nasal cavity)

16 The teeth

17 The Maxillae Paired, facial Paired, facial Contribute to structure of eyes, nose, mouth Contribute to structure of eyes, nose, mouth 3 processes; frontal, zygomatic, palatine 3 processes; frontal, zygomatic, palatine Articulations? Articulations? Individual ID: dental arch, teeth, prominence of mouth and nose Individual ID: dental arch, teeth, prominence of mouth and nose

18 Are the maxillae useful? Yes! Yes! Age – TEETH!!! Age – TEETH!!! Race: Race: Width of nasal aperature Width of nasal aperature Projection of nose and mouth Projection of nose and mouth Dental arch shape Dental arch shape

19 The Maxillae Paired, facial Paired, facial Contribute to structure of eyes, nose, mouth Contribute to structure of eyes, nose, mouth 3 processes; frontal, zygomatic, palatine 3 processes; frontal, zygomatic, palatine Articulations? Articulations? Individual ID: dental arch, teeth, prominence of mouth and nose Individual ID: dental arch, teeth, prominence of mouth and nose

20 Are the maxillae useful? Yes! Yes! Age – TEETH!!! Age – TEETH!!! Race: Race: Width of nasal aperature Width of nasal aperature Projection of nose and mouth Projection of nose and mouth Dental arch shape Dental arch shape

21 The mandible Single bone Single bone U-shaped with vertical processes U-shaped with vertical processes Contains teeth: functions largely as muscle attachments (chewing muscles and tongue) and holds teeth Contains teeth: functions largely as muscle attachments (chewing muscles and tongue) and holds teeth Individual ID: variable shape of jaw, teeth Individual ID: variable shape of jaw, teeth Growth – 2 centers Growth – 2 centers

22 Is the mandible useful? YES!! YES!! Age Age 2 halves fuse by 6-8 months 2 halves fuse by 6-8 months Sex Sex Mental protuberance Mental protuberance Gonial angle Gonial angle

23 The mandible Single bone Single bone U-shaped with vertical processes U-shaped with vertical processes Contains teeth: functions largely as muscle attachments (chewing muscles and tongue) and holds teeth Contains teeth: functions largely as muscle attachments (chewing muscles and tongue) and holds teeth

24 Is the mandible useful? YES!! Individual ID: variable shape of jaw, teeth YES!! Individual ID: variable shape of jaw, teeth Growth – 2 centers Growth – 2 centers Age Age 2 halves fuse by 6-8 months 2 halves fuse by 6-8 months Sex Sex Mental protuberance Mental protuberance Gonial angle Gonial angle

25 Teeth!!!!! Directional terminology Directional terminology Labial: toward lips Labial: toward lips Buccal: toward cheek Buccal: toward cheek Lingual: toward tongue Lingual: toward tongue Mesial: toward midline Mesial: toward midline Distal: toward back of mouth, away from midline Distal: toward back of mouth, away from midline

26

27 Teeth We talk about teeth in quadrants (RU, RL, LU, LL), 8 in each We talk about teeth in quadrants (RU, RL, LU, LL), 8 in each Short hand examples… Short hand examples… Upper, lower, left, right Upper, lower, left, right 4 types 4 types Incisors (2) Incisors (2) Canines (1) Canines (1) Premolars (2) Premolars (2) Molars (3) Molars (3)

28 4 types Incisor, Canine, Premolar, Molar

29 Incisors 8 total 8 total Anterior teeth Anterior teeth Single straight edge with no cusps Single straight edge with no cusps Single root Single root

30 Canines 4 total 4 total Distal to incisors Distal to incisors Single cusp Single cusp Single root Single root CanMand.gif

31 Premolars 8 total 8 total Distal to canine Distal to canine 2 cusps 2 cusps Buccal root larger 1-2 roots 1-2 roots PreMandTwo.gif

32 Molars 12 total 12 total Multiple cusps Multiple cusps Multiple roots Multiple roots Complex morphology for chewing and grinding Complex morphology for chewing and grinding Upper molars generally have more roots Upper molars generally have more roots

33 per.htm


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