What are fricative consonants? Fricative Consonants are produced by forcing the breath steam through a constriction formed by articulators in the vocal tract. Fricatives involve letting the air slide through a narrow opening in the mouth. They can be prolonged for some time. The air is not completely blocked. If you make the narrow opening with your bottom lip against your top teeth, you are producing a labiodentals (lip-tooth) fricative. The voiced labiodentals fricative is the initial consonant of veer. The unvoiced labiodentals fricative is the initial consonant of fear. If you make that opening with your tongue against your top teeth, you produce a dental fricative. The voiced dental fricative is the initial consonant of though. The unvoiced dental fricative is the initial consonant of think.
/f/ vs. /v/ / / / / It is made by closing the mouth almost all the way. The top teeth are shown biting down the lower lip. The tongue is in the middle of the mouth. Air is blown through slowly. It is made by closing the mouth almost all the way. The top teeth are shown biting down the lower lip. The tongue is in the middle of the mouth. Air is blown through slowly. /v//v/ It is made by closing the mouth almost all the way. The top teeth are shown biting down on the lower lip. The tongue is in the middle of the mouth. It is made by closing the mouth almost all the way. The top teeth are shown biting down on the lower lip. The tongue is in the middle of the mouth.
/f/ vs. /v/ vet village volcano television tooth month thin thirsty
/f/ vs. /v/ 3. Listen and follow. few /fju:/ view /vju:/ leaf /li:f/ leave /li:v/ feel /fi:l/ veal /vi:l/ file /fail/ vile /vail/ refuse /ri'fju:z/ reviews /ri'vju:z/ ferry /'fer.i/ very /'ver i/ supper /'s p / suffer /'s f. / rougher/'r f. / lover /'l v. /
/f/ vs. /v/ 2. Read these following sentences. (1) Philip found the cave in the valley at five forty on the first of February. (2) The brave diver dived into the river to save the villager. (3) Virtue is fairer than beauty. (4) Only a few friends were ever invited to the famous violinist's villa. Many had seen photographs of it.
/ /vs./ / / / It is made by opening the mouth medium wide. The teeth are apart, with only some of the top front teeth shown. The tongue sticks out of the mouth between the front teeth. Air is blown through slowly. / / It is produced by squeezing the breath stream between the tongue and teeth, and its voiced. Put your hand on your throat and say/ /. You should not feel anything. Now say/ /. You should be able to feel the vocal folds vibrating when you say this sound. Now try/ /, / /, / /.You should be able to feel the vibration stopping and starting.
/ /vs./s/ 1.Listen and compare /s/,/ /. sing /si / thing/ i / pass/p :s/ path/p : / sort/s :t/ thought/ :t/ closing/'kl u.zi / clothing/'kl u. i / mouse/maus/ mouth/mau / sum/s m/ thumb/ m/ breeze/bri:z/ breathe/bri: / sick/sik/ thick/ ik/
/ / vs. /z/ 2. Practice following words. breath/bri: / breeze/bri:z/ though/ u/ that/ t/ doze/d uz/ those/ uz/ tease/ti:z/ teethe/ti: / there/ / writhe/rai / rise/raiz/ than/ n/
/ /vs./s/; / /vs./z/ 3. Listen and imitate. Pay special attention to/s/, /z/, / / and / /. (1) Three thirty. (2) What's this? This is a zoo. (3) The bathroom's through there. (4) Wise thoughts (5) Whose is that? It's theirs. (6) What are these? These are zippers.
/s/ vs. /z/ /s/ It is made by opening the mouth medium wide. The teeth are shown clenched together. The tongue touches all of the bottom teeth. Air is blown through slowly. /z/ It is made by opening the mouth medium wide. The teeth are shown clenched together. The tongue touches all of the top teeth.
/s/ vs. /z/ sun box horse bicycle zoo prize bees nose
/s/ vs. /z/ 1. Try those following words. / / set soft sort suit sour Saturday seven rest gas purse rice miss loss against almost zeal / / zero zest zoo lose buzz wives as gaze rise goes comes plays
/s/ vs. /z/ 2. Try the following words. Pay special attention to the vowel length and the strength of the consonant. place/pleis/ plays/pleiz/ niece/ni:s/ knees/ni:z/ price /prais/prize/praiz/ spice/spais/ spies/spaiz/ ice/ais/ eyes/aiz/ ass/ s/ as/ z/
/ / vs. / / / /,/ / / /, / / They are made by opening the mouth and pushing the lips outward. The teeth are shown clenched together. The sides of the tongue touch the top back teeth.
/h/ 2. Practice the following phrases and sentences. (1) How's Arthur? (2) have the upper hand (3) have a heart (4) have one's hands full (5) out of hand (6) We all went home. (7) How do you do? (8) the Houses of Parliament
/r/ Put the tip of the tongue near, but not touching, the back part of the upper teeth ridge ;the main body of the tongue is kept low and the front is held concave ( ) allowing air to escape. /r/
1. Read the following words and phrases. read right already ferry sorry arrive rhythm wrap wrist write wrong roar rear a real writer a crazy dreams prince and princess bride and bridegroom a rich prince a press conference practice and progress hand in hand/ a huge hall heres your hat
What are affricative consonants? Fricatives are made by partially blocking the airflow, thus causing the friction-like noise characteristic of these sounds.
/t d / They are produced by stop the breath-stream between the tongue and ridge for a stop and fricative. The stop is made by the front part of the tongue against the teeth ridge and then the air is slowly released, and it escapes over the surface of the tongue.
/t d / cheek chicken church watch jeep jug orange bridge
/t d / Repeat the words in the box. 1.Repeat the words in the box. peaches sugar orange juice jam chicken bread wine champagne fish mushrooms milk fresh vegetables cheese Coco-Cola chocolate chips beer butter
/t d / 2. Read following words. rich ridge search serge chat jack choke joke chain Jane
/tr,dr/ Place the main part of the tongue as for/r/and bring the tip to touch the back part of the teeth ridge; air is forced from the lungs and then the tongue is removed not too quickly from the teeth ridge. / /
/tr,dr/ 1. Read following words. try dry track drag true drew trim dream
/, / Place the main part of the tongue as for/s/and bring the tip to touch the teeth ridge; air is forced from the lung and then the tongue is removed not too quickly from the ridge. /
/, / 2. Try to read the following passage: A tree toad loved a she-toad who lived up in a tree. He was a two-toed tree toad but a three-toed toad was she. The two-toed tree toad tried to win the three-toed she-toad's heart, for the two-toed tree toad loved the ground that the three-toed tree toad trod. But the two-toed tree toad tried in vain. He couldn't please her whim. From her tree toad bower with her three-toed power the she-toad vetoed him.