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The Digestive System & Body Metabolism Chapter 14 Part C

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Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System & Body Metabolism Chapter 14 Part C"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Digestive System & Body Metabolism Chapter 14 Part C

2 Accessory Digestive Organs
Teeth Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Gallbladder

3 Teeth The role is to masticate (chew) food
Humans have two sets of teeth Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth Come in at 6 months 20 teeth are fully formed by age two Permanent Teeth Replace deciduous teeth beginning between the ages of 6 to 12 Full set by age 21 A full set is 32 teeth, but some people do not have wisdom teeth (third molars) Wisdom teeth emerge at years

4 Classification of Teeth
Incisors – chisel-shaped for cutting Canines – fanglike (eyeteeth) for tearing or piercing Premolars – bicuspids for grinding Molars – for grinding

5 Human Deciduous & Permanent Teeth
Figure 14.9

6 Regions of a Tooth Crown – exposed part
Outer enamel (calcium) – hardest substance in the body Dentin – found deep to the enamel and forms the bulk of the tooth Pulp cavity – contains connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers Root canal – where the pulp cavity extends into the root Figure 14.10

7 Regions of a Tooth Neck Root Gingiva = gums
Region in contact with the gum Connects crown to root Root Cementum – covers outer surface and attaches the tooth to the periodontal membrane Periodontal membrane attached to the bone Root canal carrying blood vessels and nerves Gingiva = gums Figure 14.10

8 Regions of a Tooth Figure 14.10

9 Meth drug user

10 Salivary Glands Three pairs of salivary glands empty secretions through tiny ducts into the mouth Parotid glands – located anterior to ears Will become inflammed if infected with mumps Mumps is highly contagious Complications can affect reproductive organs, pancreas Submandibular glands Sublingual glands


12 Saliva Mixture of mucus and serous fluids Helps to form a food bolus
Easier to chew & swallow Contains salivary amylase to begin starch digestion Contains lysozyme & IgA (kills bacteria) Dissolves chemicals so they can be tasted

13 Pancreas Soft, pink, triangular
Extends across the abdomen from the spleen to duodenum Retroperitoneal – lies posterior to parietal peritoneum

14 Pancreas Produces a wide spectrum of digestive enzymes that break down all categories of food Enzymes are secreted into the duodenum Alkaline fluid introduced with enzymes to neutralize acidic chyme Endocrine products of pancreas – released into blood-help regulate absorption of sugar by cells Insulin Glucagon


16 Pancreas Figure 14.6

17 Liver Largest gland in the body
Located on the right side of the body, under the diaphragm Consists of four lobes suspended from the diaphragm and abdominal wall by the falciform ligament Connected to the gall bladder via the common hepatic duct

18 Liver Diseases Hepatitis – viral infection
Cirrhosis – Chronic disease in which liver tissue gradually replaced by scar tissue Caused by diseases such as hepatitis and alcoholism

19 Location of Liver Figure 14.5

20 Livers: Normal, fatty, cirrhosis

21 Bile Produced by cells in the liver Chemical Composition
Bile salts-help break large fat globules into smaller ones Bile pigment (mostly bilirubin from the breakdown of hemoglobin) Cholesterol Phospholipids—emulsifies fats Electrolytes

22 Gall Bladder Sac found in hollow fossa of liver
When no digestion is occurring, bile backs up the cystic duct for storage in the gallbladder When digestion of fatty food is occurring, bile is introduced into the duodenum from the gallbladder Gallstones are crystallized cholesterol which can cause blockages

23 Gallbladder Figure 14.6

24 Liver with Gall Bladder

25 Gall Stones

26 Functions of the Digestive System
Ingestion – getting food into the mouth Propulsion – moving foods from one region of the digestive system to another Peristalsis—alternating waves of contraction and relaxation that squeezes food along the GI tract Segmentation—moving materials back and forth to aid with mixing in the small intestine

27 Peristalsis Figure 14.12

28 Brain Break!! Betcha Can’t… (only 1 in 10 can do this!!)
Roll your head in one direction and roll your tongue around your lips in the opposite direction… Reach out with straight arms, cross wrist, grasp hands…Reach up…arch back…come back…cross legs…spell your full name backwards

29 Functions of the Digestive System
Mechanical Digestion Physically fragmenting food into smaller pieces Mixing of food in the mouth by the tongue Churning of food in the stomach Segmentation in the small intestine Mechanical digestion prepares food for further degradation by enzymes

30 Functions of the Digestive System
Chemical Digestion Enzymes break down food molecules into their building blocks Hydrolysis – water added to break bonds Each major food group uses different enzymes Carbohydrates are broken to simple sugars Monosaccharide = glucose, fructose & galactose Disaccharides = sucrose, maltose & lactose Proteins are broken to amino acids Fats are broken to fatty acids and alcohols

31 Functions of the Digestive System
Figure (1 of 3)

32 Figure (3 of 3)

33 Functions of the Digestive System
Absorption End products of digestion are absorbed in the blood or lymph By active or passive transport Food must enter mucosal cells and then into blood or lymph capillaries Defecation Elimination of indigestible substances from the GI tract in the form of feces

34 Functions of the Digestive System

35 Control of Digestive Activity
Mostly controlled by reflexes via the parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic fibers of cranial nerves V & IX Chemical and mechanical receptors are located in organ walls that trigger reflexes Stimuli receptors respond to include: Stretch of the organ pH of the contents Presence of breakdown products Reflexes include: Activation or inhibition of glandular secretions Smooth muscle activity

36 Digestive Activities of the Mouth
Mechanical breakdown Food is physically broken down by chewing Chemical digestion Food is mixed with saliva Breaking of starch into maltose by salivary amylase

37 Activities of the Pharynx & Esophagus
These organs have no digestive function Serve as passageways to the stomach Deglutition =Swallowing—occurs in two phases: Buccal Phase Involves tongue, soft palate, pharynx & esophagus Voluntary control Occurs in the mouth Food is formed into a bolus The bolus is forced into the pharynx by the tongue

38 Deglutition -Swallowing
Pharyngeal-Esophageal phase Due to parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system (vagus nerve) Involuntary transport of the bolus All passageways except to the stomach are blocked Tongue blocks off the mouth Soft palate (uvula) blocks the nasopharynx Epiglottis blocks the larynx Peristalsis moves the bolus toward the stomach Gravity plays NO part The cardioesophageal sphincter is opened when food presses against it Video Clip: Swallowing

39 Deglutition (Swallowing)
Figure 14.14a–b

40 Deglutition (Swallowing)
Figure 14.14c–d

41 Chemical Digestion in the Stomach
Gastric juice is regulated by neural and hormonal factors Presence of food or rising pH causes the release of the hormone gastrin Gastrin causes stomach glands to produce Protein-digesting enzymes Mucus HCl HCl makes the stomach contents very acidic Acidic pH is necessary to: Activate pepsinogen to pepsin for protein digestion Provides a hostile environment for microorganisms Mucus protects stomach 2-3L of gastric juice are produced every day

42 Digestion & Absorption in the Stomach
Protein digestion enzymes: Pepsin – an active protein digesting enzyme Rennin – works on digesting milk protein Produced by infants, not adults The only absorption that occurs in the stomach is of alcohol and aspirin

43 Propulsion in the Stomach
Food must first be well mixed Rippling peristalsis occurs in the lower stomach The pylorus meters out chyme into the small intestine (30 ml at a time) The stomach empties in 4–6 hours Vomiting = emesis (reverse peristalsis) Figure 14.15

44 Propulsion in the Stomach
Figure 14.15a–c

45 Digestion in the Small Intestine
Takes 3-6 hours Enzymes from the brush border Break double sugars into simple sugars Complete some protein digestion Pancreatic enzymes play the major digestive function Help complete digestion of starch (pancreatic amylase) Carry out about half of all protein digestion (trypsin, chymotripsin, carboxypeptidase Digest fats using lipases from the pancreas Digest nucleic acids using nucleases Alkaline content neutralizes acidic chyme Pancreatic juice – HCO3 (pH 8.0); alkaline content neutralizes acidic chyme

46 Regulation of Pancreatic Juice Secretion
Release of pancreatic juice into the duodenum is stimulated by Vagus nerve Local hormones Secretin & Cholecystokinin Secreted by mucosal cells of small intestine Travel to pancreas, liver & gall bladder Hormones travel the blood to stimulate the pancreas to release enzyme- and bicarbonate-rich product Figure 14.16

47 Regulation of Pancreatic Juice Secretion
Hormones travel the blood to stimulate the pancreas to release enzyme- and bicarbonate-rich product Secretin causes the liver to increase bile output CCK causes the gallbladder to release stored bile Bile is necessary for fat absorption and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (K, D, A)

48 Regulation of Pancreatic Juice Secretion
Figure 14.16

49 Hormones & Hormonelike Products that Act in Digestion
Table 14.1 (1 of 2)

50 Hormones & Hormonelike Products that Act in Digestion
Table 14.1 (2 of 2)

51 Absorption in the Small Intestine
Water is absorbed along the length of the small intestine End products of digestion Most substances are absorbed by active transport through cell membranes Lipids are absorbed by diffusion into capillaries & lacteals Substances are transported to the liver by the hepatic portal vein or lymph

52 Propulsion in the Small Intestine
Peristalsis is the major means of moving food Segmental movements: Mix chyme with digestive juices Aid in propelling food

53 Digestion & Absorption in the Large Intestine
Complete digestion takes approximately hours No digestive enzymes are produced Resident bacteria digest remaining nutrients Produce some vitamin K and B Release gases – methane & hydrogen sulfide (500ml/day) Water and vitamins K and B are absorbed 2L of water are absorbed Remaining materials are eliminated via feces Feces contains: Undigested food residues Mucus Bacteria & Water

54 Propulsion in the Large Intestine
Sluggish Peristalsis Mass movements Slow, powerful movements Occur three to four times per day – during or just after eating Presence of feces in the rectum causes a defecation reflex Spinal (sacral) reflex Internal anal sphincter is relaxed

55 Defecation occurs with relaxation of the voluntary (external) anal sphincter
Increased fiber causes increased colon contractions & softens stool Diarrhea – food rushes through, no water absorption Constipation – food remains too long, too much water is absorbed

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