3 Bell Make a “foldable” Label as follows…. Digestion/Function Mouth/oral cavityEsophagusStomachAccessory organsSmall intestineLarge intestineAnal Canal
4 BellList the Functions of the Digestive System If you did not make a foldable on Friday, see me.
5 Functions of the Digestive System Physical breakdown of foodChemical digestion of food into the end products of fat, carbohydrates and protein.Absorb nutrients into blood capillaries of the small intestinesEliminate waste products of digestion
6 Bell… You need 4 pieces of paper WAIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS Functions/Facts Oral cavity/MouthEsophagusStomachAccessory organsSmall IntestinesLarge IntestinesAnal Canal
7 ENZYMES – chemical substances that promote chemical reactions in living things. ALIMENTARY CANAL – digestive tract or gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract). A 30 ft. tube from mouth to anus.
8 Accessory organs of digestion: TongueTeethSalivary glandsPancreasLiverGall bladder
9 ESOPHAGUS · Muscular tube, 10” long · Connects pharynx and stomach 4 layers Mucosa (innermost)-enzymesSubmucosa-Bld vessels and nerve endingsCircular muscleLongitudinal muscle
10 PERITONEUM Lining of the Digestive System PERITONEUM – double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
11 Structure of Organs of Digestion MOUTHFood enters digestive system through mouthInside of mouth covered with mucous membraneRoof of mouth is HARD PALATE (bone) and soft palateUVULA – flap that hangs off soft palate – prevents food from going up the nose when you swallowTONGUEAttached to floor of mouthHelps in chewing and swallowingMade of skeletal muscle attached to four bonesTaste buds on the surfaceSecrete salivaTEETHGINGIVA – gums, support and protect teethMASTICATION – chewing, teeth help in mechanical digestionDECIDUOUS teeth – baby teeth (#20)Adult mouth has 32 teethStructure of Organs of Digestion
12 Three pairs of salivary glands PAROTID – largest salivary glands, they become inflamed during mumpsLocated anterior and inferior to your ears.SUBMAXILLARY or Submandibular- found near the inner surface of your lower jaw.SUBLINGUAL gland- under your tongue.They produce saliva. Liquefies food. Easier to swallow. Is 99% water., and enzymes ptyalin to break down starch.
13 Saltine Cracker Experiment 1) Hold a saltine cracker in your mouth without chewing.2) Describe the reaction that takes place and explain why this happens.3) Name the enzyme responsible for carbohydrate breakdown4) Differentiate between chemical and mechanical digestion.
14 STOMACH ESOPHAGUS Muscular tube, 10” long Connects pharynx and stomach Upper part of abdominal cavityCARDIAC SPHINCTER – circular layer of muscle, controls passage of food into stomachPYLORIC SPHINCTER – valve, regulates the entrance of food into duodenumRUGAE – mucous coat lining of stomach in folds when the stomach is emptyStomach has muscular coat that allows it to contract (peristalsis) and push food into the small intestine
15 DigestiveLabel from your packet….Once Upon a SwallowA-G
16 Protruding stomachs & malnutrition The protruding stomachs typically result from one of three factors.The first is edema in the abdominal area [Moderator's note: edema represents a "puffiness" due to accumulation of fluid that has seeped from the bloodstream into surrounding tissues]. This edema is a result of a lack of proteins in the bloodstream. The proteins in the bloodstream cause water to remain in the bloodstream. As the concentration of proteins in the bloodstream decreases, the water moves out of the bloodstream and into the extracellular spaces. This causes edema. The edema is particularly evident in the abdomen--especially in children.The second cause of a protruding stomach is an enlarged liver which is a result of inflammation as well as an accumulation of fat. Fat accumulates in the liver because` there are not enough proteins to allow it to be transported in the bloodstream.The third cause of the protruding stomach can be due to parasitic infections, which are very common in malnourished people and, of course, make their malnutrition worse.
17 Accessory Organs of Digestion PANCREASLIVERGALL BLADDER
18 PANCREAS Located behind stomach Exocrine function – secretes digestive enzymesAlso has endocrine function
19 LIVER Largest organ in the body Located below the diaphragm, upper right quadrantConnected to gallbladder and small intestine by ductsFunctions:Produce and store glucose in the form of GLYCOGENDetoxify alcohol, drugs and other harmful substancesManufacture blood proteinsManufactures bileStore Vitamins A, D and B complex
20 BellStarting with the mouth and going thru the pancreas list the sequence of digestion and on fact about each organ.
21 GALL BLADDER Small green organ, inferior surface of the liver Stores and concentrates bile until needed by the bodyWhen fatty foods digested, bile released by gallbladderGallstonesCan block CHOLELITHIASISthe bile duct causing pain and digestive disorders
22 · Consists of three portions: .Small Intestine (3-5 hours)· 1 inch in diameter and 23 feet long.· It is coiled up in abdominal cavity.Digestion continues and this is where absorption occurs· Consists of three portions:1. Duodenum - (about 12 inches long) This is where the pancreas and liver have ducts which empty into the small intestine. Most of the chemical digestion occurs in this first division. (This is a site of frequent ulceration - duodenal ulcer.)2. Jejunum - ( about 8 feet in length)3. Ileum· Food is now broken down into usable substances which can be used by the tissues.· These substances are absorbed by the villi (millions line the walls of the small intestine.)· Nutrients are either sent to the blood or put into storage.
23 LARGE INTESTINE CHYME – semi-liquid food Approx 2” in diameter Also called the colonCECUM – lower right portion of large intestineAPPENDIX is finger-like projection off cecum
24 ANAL CANAL RECTUM – last portion of large intestine ANUS – external opening
25 Bell:Complete the Once upon a Swallow worksheet.
26 Bell Complete the Unscramble activity on your desk Label the Digestive System in your packet-12 structures
27 Digestion The process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by the body cellsBOLUS – soft, pliable ball – creating from chewing and addition of saliva – it slides down esophagus PERISTALSIS – wavelike motions, moves food along esophagus, stomach and intestines
30 DIGESTION: In the mouth… saliva softens food to make it easier to swallowPTYALIN in saliva converts starches into simple sugarunder nervous control – just thinking of food can cause your mouth to water
31 IDENTIFYING TEETH Incisors-located in the front and center -broad, sharp edge-used to cut foodCuspids-also called canines, or eyeteeth-located at angles of lips-used to tear food-longest teeth in the mouthBicuspids-also called premolars-located before molars, fromfront to back-used to pulverize or grind foodMolars-teeth in the back of the mouth-largest and strongest teeth-used to grind food
32 More choppers….. Primary/Deciduous -first set of teeth - “baby” teeth -maintains correctspacing for permanentteethMaxillary - located in the sockets, or alveolior upper jaw boneMandibular -located in the alveoli of themandible, or lower jaw boneSecondary/Permanent - second set of teeth- there are 32
33 In the stomach… gastric (digestive) juices are released stomach walls churn and mix (This mixture is chime)small amount of chyme enters duodenum at a time - controlled by pyloric sphinctertakes 2-4 hours for stomach to empty
34 In the small intestine… where digestion is completed and absorption occursaddition of enzymes from pancreas and bile from liver/gallbladder
35 SMALL INTESTINEDUODENUM – first segment, curves around pancreas, 12” longJEJUNUM – next section, 8 ft. longILEUM – final portion, feet longABSORPTION – in small intestine, digested food passes into bloodstream and on to body cells,… undigestible passes on to large intestine
36 In the large intestine… regulation of H2O balance by absorbing large quantities back into bloodstreambacterial action on undigested food – decomposed products excreted through colon – bacteria form moderate amounts of B complex and Vitamin Kgas formation – 1-3 pints/day, pass it through rectum (FLATULENCE) 14 times a day, bacteria produce the gasFECES – undigested semi-solid consisting of bacteria, waste products, mucous and celluloseDEFECATION – when lg intestine fills, defecation reflex triggered – colon and rectal muscles contract while internal sphincter relaxes – external anal sphincter under conscious control
37 assignmentWorkbook page 233 C and page 236 K237 O
38 Bell Get out Digestive disorder grid Fill in blanks from outline and text
39 Digestive Disorders HEARTBURN Acid reflux Symp – burning sensation Rx – avoid chocolate and peppermint, coffee, citrus, fried or fatty foods, tomato products – stop smoking – take antacids – don’t lay down 2-3 hours after eatingGASTROENTERITISInflammation of mucous membrane lining of stomach and intestineCommon cause = virusSymps – diarrhea and vomiting for hoursComplication = dehydrationULCERSore or lesion that forms in the mucosal lining of the stomachGastric ulcers in the stomach and duodenal ulcers in the duodenumCause – H. pylori (bacteria) is primary causeLifestyle factors that contribute: cigarette smoking, alcohol, stress, certain drugs
40 Bell…3…List three most important ideas about Effects of aging on the Digestive system2) Write two questions generated by this information1) Record one Implication for a health care provider
41 ULCER The surgical specimen of the distal stomach reveals a Sore or lesion that forms in the mucosal lining of the stomachGastric ulcers in the stomach and duodenal ulcers in the duodenumCause – H. pylori (bacteria) is primary causeLifestyle factors that contribute: cigarette smoking, alcohol, stress, certain drugsSymp – burning pain in abdomen, between meals and early morning, may be relieved by eating or taking antacidDiagnosis – x-ray, presence of bacteriaRx – H2 blockers (drugs) that block release of histamineThe surgical specimen of the distal stomach reveals aperforated peptic ulcer.A: Rugal fold B: Ulcer
42 APPENDICITIS When appendix becomes inflamed If it ruptures, bacteria from appendix can spread to peritoneal cavity
43 HEPATITIS HEPATITIS A Infectious hepatitis Cause – virus Spread through contaminated food or H2OHEPATITIS B (Serum Hepatitis)Caused by virus found in bloodTransmitted by blood transfusion or being stuck with contaminated needles (drug addicts)Health care workers at risk and should be vaccinatedUse standard precautions for preventionCIRRHOSISChronic, progressive disease of liverNormal tissue replaced by fibrous connective tissue75% caused by excessive alcohol consumption
44 CHOLECYSTITIS Inflammation of gallbladder CHOLELITHIASIS Gallstones Pain can be between shoulder blades/backCan block the bile duct causing pain and digestive disordersSmall ones may pass on their own, large ones surgically removedSurgical removal of gallbladder = CHOLECYSTECTOMY
45 Additional Disorders DIARRHEA Loose, watery, frequent bowel movements when feces pass along colon too rapidlyCaused by infection, poor diet, nervousness, toxic substances or irritants in foodCONSTIPATIONWhen defecation delayed, feces become dry and hardRx – diet with cereals, fruits, vegetables, (roughage), drinking plenty of fluids, exercise, and avoiding tensionJAUNDICEYellow color of the skin
47 Bell Using the N.C. Health Careers book explore…. (choose one) Dental assistantDental HygienistDental LaboratoryTechnologistDentist(List at least one Professional association, describe work, list salary, and academic requirements
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