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The Digestive System the process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by body cells.

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Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System the process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by body cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Digestive System the process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by body cells.

2 Bell… Workbook 235 I only

3 Bell Make a “foldable” Label as follows…. Digestion/Function
Mouth/oral cavity Esophagus Stomach Accessory organs Small intestine Large intestine Anal Canal

4 Bell List the Functions of the Digestive System If you did not make a foldable on Friday, see me.

5 Functions of the Digestive System
Physical breakdown of food Chemical digestion of food into the end products of fat, carbohydrates and protein. Absorb nutrients into blood capillaries of the small intestines Eliminate waste products of digestion

6 Bell… You need 4 pieces of paper WAIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS Functions/Facts
Oral cavity/Mouth Esophagus Stomach Accessory organs Small Intestines Large Intestines Anal Canal

7 ENZYMES – chemical substances that promote chemical reactions in living things.
ALIMENTARY CANAL – digestive tract or gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract). A 30 ft. tube from mouth to anus.

8 Accessory organs of digestion:
Tongue Teeth Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Gall bladder

9 ESOPHAGUS · Muscular tube, 10” long · Connects pharynx and stomach
4 layers Mucosa (innermost)-enzymes Submucosa-Bld vessels and nerve endings Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle

10 PERITONEUM Lining of the Digestive System
PERITONEUM – double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

11 Structure of Organs of Digestion
MOUTH Food enters digestive system through mouth Inside of mouth covered with mucous membrane Roof of mouth is HARD PALATE (bone) and soft palate UVULA – flap that hangs off soft palate – prevents food from going up the nose when you swallow TONGUE Attached to floor of mouth Helps in chewing and swallowing Made of skeletal muscle attached to four bones Taste buds on the surface Secrete saliva TEETH GINGIVA – gums, support and protect teeth MASTICATION – chewing, teeth help in mechanical digestion DECIDUOUS teeth – baby teeth (#20) Adult mouth has 32 teeth Structure of Organs of Digestion

12 Three pairs of salivary glands
PAROTID – largest salivary glands, they become inflamed during mumps Located anterior and inferior to your ears. SUBMAXILLARY or Submandibular- found near the inner surface of your lower jaw. SUBLINGUAL gland- under your tongue. They produce saliva. Liquefies food. Easier to swallow. Is 99% water., and enzymes ptyalin to break down starch.

13 Saltine Cracker Experiment
1) Hold a saltine cracker in your mouth without chewing. 2) Describe the reaction that takes place and explain why this happens. 3) Name the enzyme responsible for carbohydrate breakdown 4) Differentiate between chemical and mechanical digestion.

14 STOMACH ESOPHAGUS Muscular tube, 10” long Connects pharynx and stomach
Upper part of abdominal cavity CARDIAC SPHINCTER – circular layer of muscle, controls passage of food into stomach PYLORIC SPHINCTER – valve, regulates the entrance of food into duodenum RUGAE – mucous coat lining of stomach in folds when the stomach is empty Stomach has muscular coat that allows it to contract (peristalsis) and push food into the small intestine

15 Digestive Label from your packet….Once Upon a Swallow A-G

16 Protruding stomachs & malnutrition
The protruding stomachs typically result from one of three factors. The first is edema in the abdominal area [Moderator's note: edema represents a "puffiness" due to accumulation of fluid that has seeped from the bloodstream into surrounding tissues]. This edema is a result of a lack of proteins in the bloodstream. The proteins in the bloodstream cause water to remain in the bloodstream. As the concentration of proteins in the bloodstream decreases, the water moves out of the bloodstream and into the extracellular spaces. This causes edema. The edema is particularly evident in the abdomen--especially in children. The second cause of a protruding stomach is an enlarged liver which is a result of inflammation as well as an accumulation of fat. Fat accumulates in the liver because` there are not enough proteins to allow it to be transported in the bloodstream. The third cause of the protruding stomach can be due to parasitic infections, which are very common in malnourished people and, of course, make their malnutrition worse.

17 Accessory Organs of Digestion

18 PANCREAS Located behind stomach
Exocrine function – secretes digestive enzymes Also has endocrine function

19 LIVER Largest organ in the body
Located below the diaphragm, upper right quadrant Connected to gallbladder and small intestine by ducts Functions: Produce and store glucose in the form of GLYCOGEN Detoxify alcohol, drugs and other harmful substances Manufacture blood proteins Manufactures bile Store Vitamins A, D and B complex

20 Bell Starting with the mouth and going thru the pancreas list the sequence of digestion and on fact about each organ.

21 GALL BLADDER Small green organ, inferior surface of the liver
Stores and concentrates bile until needed by the body When fatty foods digested, bile released by gallbladder Gallstones Can block CHOLELITHIASIS the bile duct causing pain and digestive disorders

22 · Consists of three portions:
. Small Intestine (3-5 hours) ·        1 inch in diameter and 23 feet long. ·        It is coiled up in abdominal cavity. Digestion continues and this is where absorption occurs ·        Consists of three portions: 1. Duodenum - (about 12 inches long) This is where the pancreas and liver have ducts which empty into the small intestine. Most of the chemical digestion occurs in this first division. (This is a site of frequent ulceration - duodenal ulcer.) 2. Jejunum - ( about 8 feet in length) 3. Ileum ·        Food is now broken down into usable substances which can be used by the tissues. ·        These substances are absorbed by the villi (millions line the walls of the small intestine.) ·        Nutrients are either sent to the blood or put into storage.

23 LARGE INTESTINE CHYME – semi-liquid food Approx 2” in diameter
Also called the colon CECUM – lower right portion of large intestine APPENDIX is finger-like projection off cecum

24 ANAL CANAL RECTUM – last portion of large intestine
ANUS – external opening

25 Bell: Complete the Once upon a Swallow worksheet.

26 Bell Complete the Unscramble activity on your desk
Label the Digestive System in your packet-12 structures

27 Digestion The process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by the body cells BOLUS – soft, pliable ball – creating from chewing and addition of saliva – it slides down esophagus PERISTALSIS – wavelike motions, moves food along esophagus, stomach and intestines

28 Bell… Workbook 233 1-4

29 Bell Text 401, review questions 1-7 402, True False

30 DIGESTION: In the mouth…
saliva softens food to make it easier to swallow PTYALIN in saliva converts starches into simple sugar under nervous control – just thinking of food can cause your mouth to water

31 IDENTIFYING TEETH Incisors-located in the front and center
-broad, sharp edge -used to cut food Cuspids-also called canines, or eyeteeth -located at angles of lips -used to tear food -longest teeth in the mouth Bicuspids-also called premolars -located before molars, from front to back -used to pulverize or grind food Molars-teeth in the back of the mouth -largest and strongest teeth -used to grind food

32 More choppers….. Primary/Deciduous -first set of teeth - “baby” teeth
-maintains correct spacing for permanent teeth Maxillary - located in the sockets, or alveoli or upper jaw bone Mandibular -located in the alveoli of the mandible, or lower jaw bone Secondary/Permanent - second set of teeth - there are 32

33 In the stomach… gastric (digestive) juices are released
stomach walls churn and mix (This mixture is chime) small amount of chyme enters duodenum at a time - controlled by pyloric sphincter takes 2-4 hours for stomach to empty

34 In the small intestine…
where digestion is completed and absorption occurs addition of enzymes from pancreas and bile from liver/gallbladder

35 SMALL INTESTINE DUODENUM – first segment, curves around pancreas, 12” long JEJUNUM – next section, 8 ft. long ILEUM – final portion, feet long ABSORPTION – in small intestine, digested food passes into bloodstream and on to body cells,… undigestible passes on to large intestine

36 In the large intestine…
regulation of H2O balance by absorbing large quantities back into bloodstream bacterial action on undigested food – decomposed products excreted through colon – bacteria form moderate amounts of B complex and Vitamin K gas formation – 1-3 pints/day, pass it through rectum (FLATULENCE) 14 times a day, bacteria produce the gas FECES – undigested semi-solid consisting of bacteria, waste products, mucous and cellulose DEFECATION – when lg intestine fills, defecation reflex triggered – colon and rectal muscles contract while internal sphincter relaxes – external anal sphincter under conscious control

37 assignment Workbook page 233 C and page 236 K 237 O

38 Bell Get out Digestive disorder grid
Fill in blanks from outline and text

39 Digestive Disorders HEARTBURN Acid reflux Symp – burning sensation
Rx – avoid chocolate and peppermint, coffee, citrus, fried or fatty foods, tomato products – stop smoking – take antacids – don’t lay down 2-3 hours after eating GASTROENTERITIS Inflammation of mucous membrane lining of stomach and intestine Common cause = virus Symps – diarrhea and vomiting for hours Complication = dehydration ULCER Sore or lesion that forms in the mucosal lining of the stomach Gastric ulcers in the stomach and duodenal ulcers in the duodenum Cause – H. pylori (bacteria) is primary cause Lifestyle factors that contribute: cigarette smoking, alcohol, stress, certain drugs

40 Bell… 3…List three most important ideas about Effects of aging on the Digestive system 2) Write two questions generated by this information 1) Record one Implication for a health care provider

41 ULCER The surgical specimen of the distal stomach reveals a
Sore or lesion that forms in the mucosal lining of the stomach Gastric ulcers in the stomach and duodenal ulcers in the duodenum Cause – H. pylori (bacteria) is primary cause Lifestyle factors that contribute: cigarette smoking, alcohol, stress, certain drugs Symp – burning pain in abdomen, between meals and early morning, may be relieved by eating or taking antacid Diagnosis – x-ray, presence of bacteria Rx – H2 blockers (drugs) that block release of histamine The surgical specimen of the distal stomach reveals a perforated peptic ulcer. A: Rugal fold  B: Ulcer

42 APPENDICITIS When appendix becomes inflamed
If it ruptures, bacteria from appendix can spread to peritoneal cavity

43 HEPATITIS HEPATITIS A Infectious hepatitis Cause – virus
Spread through contaminated food or H2O HEPATITIS B (Serum Hepatitis) Caused by virus found in blood Transmitted by blood transfusion or being stuck with contaminated needles (drug addicts) Health care workers at risk and should be vaccinated Use standard precautions for prevention CIRRHOSIS Chronic, progressive disease of liver Normal tissue replaced by fibrous connective tissue 75% caused by excessive alcohol consumption

44 CHOLECYSTITIS Inflammation of gallbladder CHOLELITHIASIS Gallstones
Pain can be between shoulder blades/back Can block the bile duct causing pain and digestive disorders Small ones may pass on their own, large ones surgically removed Surgical removal of gallbladder = CHOLECYSTECTOMY

45 Additional Disorders DIARRHEA
Loose, watery, frequent bowel movements when feces pass along colon too rapidly Caused by infection, poor diet, nervousness, toxic substances or irritants in food CONSTIPATION When defecation delayed, feces become dry and hard Rx – diet with cereals, fruits, vegetables, (roughage), drinking plenty of fluids, exercise, and avoiding tension JAUNDICE Yellow color of the skin

46 Workbook page 241 S

47 Bell Using the N.C. Health Careers book explore…. (choose one)
Dental assistant Dental Hygienist Dental Laboratory Technologist Dentist (List at least one Professional association, describe work, list salary, and academic requirements

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