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171 ROMANCE AND GERMANIC WORDS IN ENGLISH by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen.

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Presentation on theme: "171 ROMANCE AND GERMANIC WORDS IN ENGLISH by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen."— Presentation transcript:

1 171 ROMANCE AND GERMANIC WORDS IN ENGLISH by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen

2 172 SPAIN, FRANCE, ITALY AND PORTUGAL (Parra Guinaldo 4)

3 173 SYSTEMATIC DIFFERENCES Cognates in two different languages or two different language families (like Romance Languages vs. Germanic Languages) sometimes dont sound the same, but a linguist knows how to look for systematic differences. English for example usually shows up in Italian as as in flask, Florence, and flower, which are cognate with English fiasco, Firenze, and fiore. English shows up in Italian as as in plane, place, and plus, which are cognate with Italian piano, piaza and piu.

4 174 ANOTHER SYSTEMATIC DIFFERENCE Latin /f/ => Spanish (silent) Latin fornu (furnace) => Spanish horno Latin ficu (fig) => Spanish higo Latin filiu (son) => Spanish hijo Latin farina (flour) => Spanish harina Latin facere (to make) => Spanish hacer (Parra Guinaldo 7 from Penny)

5 175 GRIMMS LAW /bh/, /dh/, /gh/ => /b/, /d/, /g/ /b/, /d/, /g/ => /p/, /t/, /k/ /p/, /t/, /k/ => /f/, /Θ/, /h/

6 176 ROMANCE /b/ => GERMANIC /p/ BOURSE (FRENCH STOCK EXCHANGE): Bursa, Bursar, Burse (comunion), Bursitis PURSE (ENGLISH): The Purse (in gambling), To control the purse stings, To make a silk purse out of a sows ear, To purse ones lips, Womans purse

7 177 ROMANCE /d/ => GERMANIC /t/ DENS (LATIN)/DENT (FRENCH): Dandelion, Dent corn, Dented fender, Dentist, Dentures, Hanging Indentation, Mastadon, Orthodontist, Rodent TOOTH/TEETH (ENGLISH): Armed to the teeth, An Eye for an Eyea Tooth for a Tooth, Long in the tooth, Sweet tooth, Teeth of a comb, Teeth of a gear, Teeth of a rake, Teeth on a saw, To cut your teeth on something, To escape by the skin of ones teeth, To fight tooth and nail, To give your eye teeth, To go over something with a fine-tooth comb, to grit your teeth, to pass a bill with teeth in it, to get someones teeth on edge

8 178 ROMANCE /k/ => GERMANIC /h/ CORDIS (LATIN)/COEUR (FRENCH): Cardiac arrest, cardiologist, Cordial, Courage, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, To encourage, to record (learn by heart) HEART (ENGLISH): Absence makes the heart grow fonder, Artichoke hearts, Bleeding heart liberal, Eat your heart out, Faint hearted, Half- hearted attempt, Heart attaclk, Heart in the right place, Heart of a city, Heart of Darkness (Joseph Conrad), Heart of the matter, Heart throb, Heartache, Heartburn (Nora Ephron), Heartened, Heartfelt, Hearts (in cards), Hearty, Home is where the heart is, Purple Heart, Sweetheart, To know something by heart, To lose heart, To touch someones heart, To wear your heart on your sleeve

9 179 ROMANCE /k/ => GERMANIC /h/ CORNU (LATIN): Capricorn, Corner, Coronet (musical instrument, Cornucopia (horn of plenty), Four corners of the earth, To be cornered, To corner the market, To cut corners, To turn the corner (in an illness) HORN (ENGLISH): Bullhorn, Cape Horn, Charlotte Hornets (basketball team), The Green Hornet (Comic book hero), Greenhorn, Horn book, Horn-billed bird, Horn of a car, Horn rimmed glasses, Horned owl, Horny (sexual), Horny toad, Ink horn terms (from Latin or Greek), On the horn (telephone), on the horns of a dilemma, To blow ones own horn, to horn in on a good deal, To lock horns, To stir up a hornets nest

10 1710 ROMANCE /p/ => GERMANIC /f/ PED (LATIN): Expedition, Impediment, Pawn (footsoldier), pedals, peddler, pedestal, pedestrian, pedicab, pedicure, pedigree (French pie de gris-crane), Piedmont (foothills), To expedite, To impede FOOT (ENGLISH): film footage, Foot of a stage, Foot soldier, Foothills, Footlights, Footloose and fancy free, Footnotes, Political football, To be on equal footing, To be underfoot, To drag ones feet, To foot the bill, To have a foothold, To get ones foot in the door, To Put your foot in your mouth,

11 1711 ROMANCE /p/ => GERMANIC /f/ PYROS (GREEK): Funeral pyre, Pyracantha, Pyrex, Pyromaniac, Pyrosis (heartburn), Pyrotechnics FIRE: Fiery, Firebrand, Firebug, Firefighter, Firehouse, Fireman, Fireplugs, Firestorm

12 1712 ROMANCE /kw/ => GERMANIC /f/ QUATTUOR/QUARTUS (LATIN): French Quarter, Headquarters, Latin Quarter, Living quarters, Quad, Quadrangle, Quadriplegic, Quadruplets, Quarantine, Quart, Quarter horse, Quadruped, Quadruple, Quarterly FOUR/FOURTH (ENGLISH): Four Corners area, Four corners of the earth, Four eyes, Fourth place, Four-wheel drive, 4 x 4, Four on the floor, Four-poster bed, Four-banger

13 1713 ASTRUM, STELLA & STAR ASTRUM (LATIN): Asterisk, Asters (flowers), Astral, Astrology, Astronaut, Astrodome (Dallas), Astrobiology, Astronomy STELLA (LATIN): Stella (girls name), Stellar (great) STAR (ENGLISH): Starfish, Starflower, Stargazing, Starlet, Seeing stars, Starstruck

14 1714 CIRCULUS & CYCLE CIRCULUS (LATIN): Circular, Circumference, Circumferential, Cirque, Circumlocution, Circumnavigation, Circumstantial, Circus, Running around in circles, Three-ring circus CYCLE (ENGLISH): Bicycle, Cyclone, Cyclical, Motorcycle, To recycle, Tricycle, Unicycle

15 1715 !CORONA & CROWN CORONA (LATIN)/CORONA (SPANISH): Coronado, Corona Borealis, Corona cigars, Corona del sol, Corona virus, Coronary arteries, Coronary thrombosis, Coronation, Coroner, Coronet braids CROWN (ENGLISH): Crown (on teeth), Crown/Kroner (money), Crown caps (on sealed bottles), Crowning achievement, To crown someone

16 1716 !!MANUS & HAND MANUS (LATIN): Emancipation Proclamation, Manacles, Manager, Manicurist, Manual, Manufacture, Manuscript HAND (ENGLISH): Handbook, Handcuffs, Handheld (not on screen), Handicrafts, Handmade, Hand Maiden, Handwork

17 17 !!!SOL & SUN SOL (LATIN): Parasol, Solar energy, Solarium, Summer solstice, Winter solstice SUN (ENGLISH): Ice cream sundaes, Sunbeam, Sunburst design, Sundance Film Festival, Sunday, Sunflowers, Sunkist Oranges, Sunbelt states, Sunset, Sunshine, Snrise, Sunshine, Wyoming, Sun Valley, Idaho, Valley of the Sun, Arizona

18 1718 Reference: Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. In Introduction to Language, 7th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson/Heinle, 2003. Parra Guinaldo, Victor. The Development of the Latin Initial F- in Old Spanish. PowerPoint Presentation. Tempe, AZ: A.S.U., April, 2006.Parra Guinaldo, Victor. The Development of the Latin Initial F- in Old Spanish. PowerPoint Presentation. Tempe, AZ: A.S.U., April, 2006. Penny, R. A History of the Spanish Language, 2 nd Edition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002.Penny, R. A History of the Spanish Language, 2 nd Edition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002.


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