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Health Occupations Skeleton System – Unit 3. Joints Area where 2 or more bones join together Ligaments – connective tissue bands holding long bones together.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Occupations Skeleton System – Unit 3. Joints Area where 2 or more bones join together Ligaments – connective tissue bands holding long bones together."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Occupations Skeleton System – Unit 3

2 Joints Area where 2 or more bones join together Ligaments – connective tissue bands holding long bones together Also called an ARTICULATION Commonly named by the bones that are joined –Sternoclavicular –Sacroiliac

3 3 types of joints Synarthrosis –Immoveable Cranium sutures Pelvic girdle Amphiarthrosis –Slightly moveable Vertebral disks Symphysis pubis Sacroiliac Diarthrosis (also called synovial joints) –Freely moveable Shoulder, elbow, wrist, fingers Hips, knees, ankles, toes

4 6 types of diarthrosis joints All contain a protective bursa –Sac filled with synovial fluid –Cushions moving parts Types of joints are named depending on type of movement

5 Ball & Socket 1. Allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, & limited rotation 2. Shoulder & Hip

6 Hinge joints 1. Limited movement in one direction, like a hinge 2. Elbow & knee

7 Gliding Joint 1. Allows bones to slide over one another Wrist

8 Pivot Joint 1. Allows rotation from side to side 2. Rotation of head 3. Rotation of lower arm from side to side

9 Saddle Joint Only on thumb – OPPOSABLE THUMB Allows the thumb to touch fingertips

10 Gomphosis Attachment of tooth into its socket Specialized joints allowing very slight movement Attachs a peglike structure (tooth) into a socket (jaw)

11 Teeth Adult human has 32 teeth Baby teeth are called deciduous or primary teeth Tooth parts –Crown – white section above gum –Root – below gum –Enamel – hardest substance in body, found covering crown –Cementum – hard, bonelike structure covering root –Dentin – located between enamel & pulp –Pulp – soft living portion of tooth, contains nerves & blood vessels

12 Enamel Crown Cementum Root Dentin Pulp

13 Types of teeth Type of teeth NumberFunctionLocationDescrip- tion Incisor, central or lateral 8Cuts foodFront of mouth Broad, sharp Cuspid, canine 4Tears foodAngles of lipsLongest in mouth Bicuspid or premolars 8Grinds foodBetween cuspids & molars Flat Molar12 (3 rd molars are wisdom teeth) Grinds foodBack of mouth Largest & strongest

14 Central Incisor Lateral incisor Cuspid Bicuspid Molar

15 Disorders of teeth Caries –Cavities –MAJOR cause of tooth loss –Caused by bacteria –Placque – thin, filmlike deposit that adheres to teeth & leads to decay – microorganisms & protein –With extensive infection, may see loss of the bone that supports the tooth –Treatment – fill the cavity with a restorative material like amalgam or remove the tooth

16 Disorders of teeth (cont) Periodontitis –Affects 90% of adults in U.S. –Causes most tooth loss in adults >35 –Tissues that hold teeth in place become inflamed –Symptoms Sore, bleeding, swollen, receding gums Persistent bad breath, HALITOSIS Advanced – pus formation, loose teeth –Treatment – Remove tooth Scrape gums Root canal therapy

17 Dental Health Care More than repair of caries & treatment of disease Correct damaged, discolored, misplaced teeth Bonding – covering surface Porcelain facing Sealants – plastic coating Bleaching Braces Osteointegration – implants

18 Brushing Teeth Clean all 5 surfaces of tooth –Chewing or biting surface –Facial surface – faces inside of lips & cheeks –Lingual surface – tooth side nearest tongue –Side or interproximal surfaces – located between teeth, 2 on each tooth. Needs floss to clean

19 Brushing teeth Raise HOB to 30 degrees Place towel across chest to protect clothing & bedding Have pt. hold emesis basin Put toothpaste on wet toothbrush Wear gloves Offer mouthwash solution (1:3) first to rinse, moistening gums and making brushing easier Brush upper teeth & gums first (decreases saliva) then lower, then tongue Rinse with mouthwash solution Dry face, remove towel, clean-up, remove gloves

20 Skeletal System - Abnormal Arthritis – group of diseases involving joint inflammation 2 types – osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis

21 Osteoarthritis Chronic disease occuring as a result of aging Often affects hips & knees Symptoms –Joint pain, stiffness, aching –Limited ROM Treatment –Rest –Heat/cold applications –Aspirin & antiinflammatory meds –Steroid injections into joints –Special exercises

22 Rheumatoid Arthritis Chronic, inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue & joints More common in women, ages Progressive attacks can cause scar tissue formation & atrophy of bone & muscle Can result in permanent deformity & immobility Early tx important to reduce pain and damage Treatment – –Rest –Anti-inflammatory meds, aspirin, steroids –Arthroplasty to replace damaged joints sometimes done

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24 Bursitis Inflammation of the bursae –Small fluid filled sacs surrounding joints Symptoms –Severe pain –Limited movement –Fluid accumulation in joint Treatment –Pain meds –Steroid & anesthetic injections into joint –Rest –Aspiration –PT to preserve joint function

25 Types of Fractures Crack or break in bone Greenstick –Bone bends & splits –Crack or incomplete break –Common in kids Simple or closed –Complete break of bone –No skin damage Compound or open –Bone breaks & ruptures through skin –Increased chance of infection

26 Types of Fractures (cont) Impacted –Broken bone ends jam into one another Comminuted –Bone fragments or splinters into more than 2 pieces

27 Types of fractures (cont) Spiral –Bone twists –Results in 2 or more breaks –Common with skiing & skating Colles –Break & dislocation of distal radius –Characteristic bulge at wrist –Caused by falling on outstretched hand

28 Types of Fractures (cont) Depressed –Bone is depressed or sunken

29 Types of fractures (cont) Avulsion –Occurs when a ligament or tendon pulls off part of a bone during an injury –Ankles, legs, hip, upper arm common –Small fracture may not require treatment & may not hurt –Large fracture may require surgical attachment

30 Treatment for fracture REDUCTION –Bone is put back into proper alignment –Closed reduction Position into alignment (usually with traction) Apply splint or cast to maintain position until fracture heals –Open reduction Surgical repair of bone May implant pins, plates, or other devices to maintain correct position of bone

31 Dislocation Bone forcibly removed from a joint Occurs in shoulders, fingers, knees, & hips frequently Treatment – –Reduce dislocation –Immobilize joint with cast, splint, or traction

32 Sprain Twisting action tears ligaments at a joint Common with wrists & ankles Symptoms –Pain & swelling –Discoloration –Limited movement Treatment –Rest –Elevation –Immobilization with elastic bandage –Cold applications

33 Subluxation Partial dislocation of a joint Like a whiplash injury May feel mild or severe pain in areas affected by spinal nerves Treatment –Manipulation of spine –Bracing or surgery

34 Talipes Congenital deformity of feet & ankle Clubfoot –One type –One or both feet are turned, usually inward, affecting mobility –Treatment Surgery Corrective shoes

35 Osteomyelitis Bone inflammation, usually caused by pathogen Abscess forms within bone Pus accumulates in medullary canal Symptoms –Pain at site –Swelling –Chills, fever Treatment –Antibiotics –Debridement

36 Osteoporosis Increased porosity or softening of bone Metabolic disorder caused by –Lack of estrogen –Prolonged lack of calcium in diet –Sedentary lifestyle Bones lose calcium & phosphate causing bones to become brittle, porous, & prone to fracture Bone density tests – lead to early prevention & preventive treatment –Increase calcium & Vitamin D intake –Meds to increase bone mass –Exercise –Estrogen replacement

37 Osteoporosis

38 Ruptured or Herniated Disk Occurs when intervertebral disk ruptures or protrudes out of place, causing pressure on spinal cord Common site – lumbar/sacral area but can occur anywhere Symptoms –Severe pain & muscle spasm –Impaired movement & numbness Treatment –Rest & traction –Physical, massage, & chiropractic therapy –Heat & cold applications –Surgery in some cases (laminectomy)

39 Herniated Disk

40 Abnormal curvature of spinal column Kyphosis – hunchback, rounded bowing of back at thoracic area Scoliosis – lateral curvature

41 Abnormal Curvature Lordosis – swayback, inward curvature of lumbar region

42 Abnormal Curvature (cont) Causes – –Poor posture –Congenital defects –Structural defects –Malnutrition –Degeneration of vertebrae Treatment –Therapeutic exercises –Firm mattresses –Braces –May require surgery if severe

43 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Common disorder Caused by pressure on median nerve of the wrist Results from repetitive motion or trauma Symptoms –Numbness & tingling –Pain & weakness Treatment –Rest affected wrist, splinting –Anti-inflammatory meds –Surgery

44 Gout Results from uric acid crystals building up Common in great toe Caused by inability to adequately remove uric acid from blood Often a complication of other disorders Symptoms –Pain & swelling of joint –May have fever & chills Treatment –Medications –Weight loss & diet management

45 Meningomyelocele Congenital condition of spinal column Called spina bifida Can cause paralysis & nervous system disorders due to pressure on spinal cord Treatment –Surgery –Prevent infection

46 Osteoma Bone tumor May be benign or malignant Symptoms – depend upon size & location of growth Tx – removal, sometimes chemo

47 Osteomalacia Rickets Softening of bones due to Vitamin D & calcium deficiency Symptoms –Pain, muscular weakness –Anorexia, weight loss –Deformity Treatment – add nutrients

48 Pagets disease Osteitis deformans Unknown cause Occurs after age 35 Excessive destruction of bone cells causing long bones to be bowed & flat Symptoms –None to bone pain –Dizziness –Headache –Deafness Treatment –Meds, mild exercise –High protein diet

49 Knee anatomy


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