Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Radiographic Anatomy of the Skull Dr. Meghan Woodland November 25, 2010.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Radiographic Anatomy of the Skull Dr. Meghan Woodland November 25, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiographic Anatomy of the Skull Dr. Meghan Woodland November 25, 2010.

2 Patient Preparation: Radiographs should be taken under general anaesthesia –In critical cases, lateral and VD views can be obtained with minimal sedation Standard skull series: –Lateral –VD Nasal, Bulla and Dental series: various oblique and open-mouth views.

3 Typical Radiographic View 1. Open mouth VD Direction of X-rays

4 Joe P. Morgan This view is used to evaluate the nasal cavity, which is important in animals with nasal discharge.

5 Note the increased opacity in the left nasal passage

6 Typical Radiographic View 2. Lateral View

7 Joe P. Morgan Can be used to evaluate for nasal or frontal bone fractures in trauma patients

8 Radiograph is oblique as the dog was awake and difficult to keep still.

9 Typical Radiographic View 3. Frontal Sinus View Direction of X-rays X-ray film

10 Joe P. Morgan Important for evaluating for the presence of sinusitis in patients with nasal discharge.

11 Note the increased opacity within the left frontal sinus

12 Normal Appearance DV/VD

13 Frontal Bone & Sinus

14 Zygomatic Arch

15 Maxillary Bone

16 Mandible

17 Tympanic Bullae

18 Horizontal Ear Canal

19 Note the decreased amount of air within the right ear canal.

20 Note the mineralization of both ear canals

21 Temporomandibular Joint

22 Normal Appearance Lateral

23 Mandible

24 Mandibular symphyseal fracture

25 Maxillary Bone

26 Zygomatic Bone

27 Orbital Margin

28 Normal cat bulla on lateral or oblique view

29 Coronoid Process of the Mandible

30 Temporomandibular Joint

31

32 Condylar Process of Mandible

33 Retroarticular Process

34 Angular Process of the Mandible

35 Close up of Skull TMJ Joint Condylar Process Retroarticular Process Angular Process

36

37 Normal Appearance Open Mouth VD

38 Ethmoid Turbinates

39 Maxillary Turbinates

40 Turbinates Turbinate pattern changes at the level of PM3. Maxillary turbinates have a linear pattern Ethmoid turbinates have a more coarse pattern

41 Vomer Bone Vomer bone Nasal Septum

42 Palatine Fissure

43 Open Mouth VD and CT Compare 1. Radiograph on the left 2. CT images on the right Note the turbinate patterns at the different levels

44 Normal Appearance Frontal Sinus View

45 Normal Appearance Lateral View

46 Frontal Sinus

47 Ethmoid Turbinates

48 Nasal Turbinates

49 Nasopharynx

50

51 Maxillary Recess

52 Tooth Root Abscess

53 Normal Dental Formula (Canine) Maxillary teeth 3 (x2) Incisors 1 (x2) Canine 4 (x2) Premolars 2 (x2) Molars

54 Normal Dental Formula (Canine) Mandibular teeth 3 (x2) Incisors 1 (x2) Canine 4 (x2) Premolars 3 (x2) Molars

55 Normal Dental Formula (Feline) Maxillary teeth 3 (x2) Incisors 1 (x2) Canine 3 (x2) Premolars 1 (x2) Molars

56 Normal Dental Formula (Feline) Mandibular teeth 3 (x2) incisors 1 (x2) canine 2 (x2) Premolars 1 (x2) Molars

57 Deciduous Teeth Time of Replacement Incisors 3-5 months Canines 5-7 months Premolars 5-6 months

58 Deciduous Teeth

59 Deciduous teeth Permanent teeth Permanent teeth

60 Normal Teeth: Age Related Changes As an animal ages the teeth will: have a decreased pulp cavity closure of the apical foramen regression of alveolar crest sclerosis of alveolar bone

61 Age Related Changes As an animal ages the teeth will: have a decreased pulp cavity closure of the apical foramen regression of alveolar crest sclerosis of alveolar bone

62 Age Related Changes As an animal ages the teeth will: have a decreased pulp cavity closure of the apical foramen regression of alveolar crest sclerosis of alveolar bone

63 Age Related Changes As an animal ages the teeth will: have a decreased pulp cavity closure of the apical foramen regression of alveolar crest sclerosis of alveolar bone

64 Age Related Changes Increasing Age

65 Age Related Changes Note the decreased size of pulp cavity

66 Normal Tooth Structure

67 Crown - covered with enamel and above gum line

68 Normal Tooth Structure Root - below gum line surrounded by bone

69 Normal Tooth Structure Pulp Cavity - contain blood vessels and nerves radiolucent zone in center to tooth

70 Normal Tooth Structure Periodontal Membrane - radiolucent (black) line surrounding the tooth root

71 Normal Tooth Structure Lamina dura - sclerotic (white) line just outside the periodontal ligament

72

73

74 The End


Download ppt "Radiographic Anatomy of the Skull Dr. Meghan Woodland November 25, 2010."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google