Presentation on theme: "Radiographic Anatomy of the Skull Dr. Meghan Woodland November 25, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Radiographic Anatomy of the Skull Dr. Meghan Woodland November 25, 2010.
Patient Preparation: Radiographs should be taken under general anaesthesia –In critical cases, lateral and VD views can be obtained with minimal sedation Standard skull series: –Lateral –VD Nasal, Bulla and Dental series: various oblique and open-mouth views.
Typical Radiographic View 1. Open mouth VD Direction of X-rays
Joe P. Morgan This view is used to evaluate the nasal cavity, which is important in animals with nasal discharge.
Note the increased opacity in the left nasal passage
Typical Radiographic View 2. Lateral View
Joe P. Morgan Can be used to evaluate for nasal or frontal bone fractures in trauma patients
Radiograph is oblique as the dog was awake and difficult to keep still.
Typical Radiographic View 3. Frontal Sinus View Direction of X-rays X-ray film
Joe P. Morgan Important for evaluating for the presence of sinusitis in patients with nasal discharge.
Note the increased opacity within the left frontal sinus
Normal Appearance DV/VD
Frontal Bone & Sinus
Horizontal Ear Canal
Note the decreased amount of air within the right ear canal.
Note the mineralization of both ear canals
Normal Appearance Lateral
Mandibular symphyseal fracture
Normal cat bulla on lateral or oblique view
Coronoid Process of the Mandible
Condylar Process of Mandible
Angular Process of the Mandible
Close up of Skull TMJ Joint Condylar Process Retroarticular Process Angular Process
Normal Appearance Open Mouth VD
Turbinates Turbinate pattern changes at the level of PM3. Maxillary turbinates have a linear pattern Ethmoid turbinates have a more coarse pattern
Vomer Bone Vomer bone Nasal Septum
Open Mouth VD and CT Compare 1. Radiograph on the left 2. CT images on the right Note the turbinate patterns at the different levels
Normal Appearance Frontal Sinus View
Normal Appearance Lateral View
Tooth Root Abscess
Normal Dental Formula (Canine) Maxillary teeth 3 (x2) Incisors 1 (x2) Canine 4 (x2) Premolars 2 (x2) Molars
Normal Dental Formula (Canine) Mandibular teeth 3 (x2) Incisors 1 (x2) Canine 4 (x2) Premolars 3 (x2) Molars
Normal Dental Formula (Feline) Maxillary teeth 3 (x2) Incisors 1 (x2) Canine 3 (x2) Premolars 1 (x2) Molars
Normal Dental Formula (Feline) Mandibular teeth 3 (x2) incisors 1 (x2) canine 2 (x2) Premolars 1 (x2) Molars
Deciduous Teeth Time of Replacement Incisors 3-5 months Canines 5-7 months Premolars 5-6 months