Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Outline Gear Theory Fundamental Law of Gearing Involute profile Nomenclature Gear Trains Loading Stresses.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Outline Gear Theory Fundamental Law of Gearing Involute profile Nomenclature Gear Trains Loading Stresses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Outline Gear Theory Fundamental Law of Gearing Involute profile Nomenclature Gear Trains Loading Stresses

2 Fundamental Law of Gearing functionally, a gearset is a device to exchange torque for velocity P=T the angular velocity ratio of the gears of a gearset must remain constant throughout the mesh pitch circle, pitch diameter d, pitch point gear pinion What gear tooth shape can do this? click here!

3 Towards the Involute Profile A belt connecting the two cylinders line of action, pressure angle

4 The Involute Profile

5 Profile of the Involute Profile pressure angle, line of action, length of action, addendum

6 Involute in Action video from

7 Nomenclature Figure 11-8

8 Pitches, Etc. circular pitch (mm, in.) base pitch (mm, in.) diametral pitch (teeth/in.) module (mm/teeth)

9 Velocity Ratio pitches must be equal for mating gears, therefore

10 Contact Ratio average number of teeth in contact at any one time = length of action divided by the base pitch, or, where C=center distance=(N g +N p )*1/p d *1/2

11 Minimum # of Teeth minimum # of teeth to avoid undercutting with gear and rack

12 Outline Gear Theory Fundamental Law of Gearing Involute profile Nomenclature Gear Trains Loading Stresses

13 Simple Gear Trains

14 Simple Gear Train

15

16 Fine for transmitting torque between shafts in close proximity when m v does not need to be too large Use third gear (idler) only for directional reasons (not for gear reduction)

17 Reverse on a Car

18 Actual Manual Transmission

19 Outline Gear Theory Fundamental Law of Gearing Involute profile Nomenclature Gear Trains Loading Stresses

20 Loading of Gears W t =tangential (transmitted) load Wr=radial load W=total load (see board for figure or page 711 in book) Because T p is constant, should W t be static for a tooth?

21 Gear vs. Idler

22 Loading Example Given: pinion is driving gear with 50hp at 1500 rpm N p =20 m v =2 (a.k.a., m g =2) p d =4 /in. =20 degrees Find: Loading and effects of inputs on loading

23 Outline Gear Theory Fundamental Law of Gearing Involute profile Nomenclature Gear Trains Loading Stresses

24 Gear Failure Fatigue LoadingSurface Failure from contact b/n of teeth infinite life not possible failure is gradual from bending of teeth infinite life possible failure can be sudden Lewis, 1892, first formulation of gear tooth fatigue failure

25 AGMA Gear Stress Formula many assumptions: see page 714… …including that the contact ratio 1

26 Bending Strength Geometry Factor from tables on pgs Inputs pinion or gear number of teeth pressure angle long-addendum or full-depth tip loading or HPSTC JKvKmKaKsKBKIJKvKmKaKsKBKI

27 Tip vs. HPSCT Loading

28 Finding J for the Example pinion is driving gear with 50hp at 1500 rpm N p =20, N g =40 p d =4 /in. =20 degrees W t =420 lb. J p =0.34, J g =0.38

29 Dynamic (Velocity) Factor JKvKmKaKsKBKIJKvKmKaKsKBKI to account for tooth-tooth impacts and resulting vibration loads from Figure or from Equations (pages ) Inputs needed: Quality Index (Table 11-7) Pitch-line Velocity V t = (radius)(angular speed in radians)

30 Dynamic Factor JKvKmKaKsKBKIJKvKmKaKsKBKI V t,max =(A+Q v -3) 2

31 Determining K v for the Example V t =(1500rev/min)(2.5 in)(1ft/12in)(2 rad/1rev)=1964 ft/min (well below V t,max ) therefore, Q v =10

32 Load Distribution Factor K m JKvKmKaKsKBKIJKvKmKaKsKBKI to account for distribution of load across face 8/p d < F < 16/p d can use 12/p d as a starting point

33 K m for the Example F=12/p d =3 in. K m =1.63

34 Application Factor, K a JKvKmKaKsKBKIJKvKmKaKsKBKI to account for non-uniform transmitted loads for example, assume that all is uniform

35 Other Factors JKvKmKaKsKBKIJKvKmKaKsKBKI to account for size to account for gear with a rim and spokes to account for extra loading on idler KsKs KBKB KIKI K s =1 unless teeth are very large K B =1 for solid gears K I =1 for non-idlers, K I =1.42 for idler gears

36 Back to the Example

37 Compared to What?? b is great, but what do I compare it to? similar concept to S e, but particularized to gears S fb´ Table Figure for steels Hardness S fb´

38 Life Factor K L to adjust test data from 1E7 to any number of cycles

39 Temperature & Reliability Factors K T =1 if T < 250°F see Equation 11.24a if T > 250°F

40 Fatigue Bending Strength for Example Class 40 Cast Iron 450 rpm, 8 hours/day, 10 years T = 80°F Reliability=99% N=(450 rev/min)(60 min/hr)(8 hr/dy)(250 dy/yr)(10 yrs)=5.4E8 revs K L =1.3558N – =0.948 S fb = (0.948)13ksi = 12.3 ksi S fb ´ = 13ksi Table 11-20

41 Safety Factor N bpinion =(12300 psi)/(3177psi)= 3.88 N bgear =(12300 psi)/(2842psi)= 4.33

42 equal to 1 same as for bending Gear Failure Fatigue LoadingSurface Failure from contact b/n of teeth infinite life not possible failure is gradual from bending of teeth infinite life possible failure can be sudden Buckingham pioneered this work d= pitch diameter of smaller gear

43 Geometry Factor I considers radius of curvature of teeth and pressure angle For example: p =0.691, g =1.87, I=0.095 top sign is for external gears, bottom for internal

44 Elastic Coefficient considers differences in materials For example, C p =1960 psi

45 Surface-Fatigue Strengths c is great, but what do I compare it to? same as for bending from Table 11-21

46 Life Factor C L to adjust test data fro 1E7 to any number of cycles

47 Hardness Ratio C H to account for pitting resistance when pinion is harder than gear, then gear is cold-worked only apply C H to the cold-worked gear when HB p =HB G, then C H =1

48 Safety Factor for Loading stress is based on the square root of loading, therefore:

49 Gear Design

50 gear pinion Same for Pinion and Gear Different for Pinion and Gear p d (p c ),, F Power W, W t, W r V t N c d, N T,, N b

51 Gear Design Strategy Given or Set: gear ratio Power,, T Properties of Gears to Determine: d p, d g, N p, N g p d, F -OR- Safety Factors (the others are given) WtWt Bending & Surface Stresses Safety Factors or p d and F


Download ppt "Outline Gear Theory Fundamental Law of Gearing Involute profile Nomenclature Gear Trains Loading Stresses."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google