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1 Class Mammalia BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Class Mammalia BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Class Mammalia BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson

2 2 Class Mammalia Hair Mammary glands Sweat glands Diphyodont teeth –Two sets Heterodont teeth –Different shapes and functions

3 3 Class Mammalia Movable eyelids Two occipital condyles Three ear bones Muscular diaphragm Placenta –Except two groups Endothermic Four chambered heart

4 4 Fig

5 5 Synapsids

6 6 Pelycosaurs Synapsid reptiles from Pennsylvanian and Permian – MYA Body close to ground Legs away from body Canine like teeth Dimetron

7 7 Therapsids Body raised off the ground Limbs more under the body Teeth differentiated into 3 types Secondary palate developing Phalangeal formula develops Lystosaurus

8 8 Cynodonts Lumbar ribs reduced or absent Well developed secondary palate Lower jaw reduced to one bone Cynognathus Thrinaxodon

9 9 Transitional Fossil Cynognathus

10 10 Transitional Fossil Thrinaxodon

11 11 Early Mammals Triassic –220 MYA Small Hair Mammary glands Skin glands Molar teeth Megazostrodon

12 12 Repenomamus robustus Ate Dinosaurs

13 13 Mammals Cynodonts Therapsids Pelycosaurs Canine like teeth Limbs under body Reduced ribs, 1 jaw bone Molars, hair, glands Synapsid reptiles Cladogram of Synapsids

14 14 Basic Mammal

15 15 Lion

16 16 Rhinoceros

17 17 Gorilla

18 18 Chimpanzee

19 19 Chimp and Human

20 20 Bat

21 21 Same bones, different stance

22 22

23 23 Incissors

24 24 Canine

25 25 Premolars

26 26 Molars

27 27

28 28 Evolution of Blood Circulation

29 29 Primitive Chordate

30 30 Fish Two Chambered Heart

31 31 Fish Circulation

32 32 Fig Amphibian Heart

33 33 Amphibian Circulation

34 34

35 35

36 36 Fig

37 37 Mammal Circulation

38 38 Bats Only flying mammal Seed dispersal Pollination Control insects

39 39 Echolocation

40 40

41 41 Smallest Mammal Kittis hog-nosed Bat Bumble size 1.5 grams

42 42 Whales Blue whale 100 feet long, 120 tons –9 story building Loudest animal– 188 dB Sound travels 100s of miles

43 43

44 44 Blue Whale Baleen whale Eats krill –Tiny crustaceans –400 pounds/day Heart weighs 1000 pounds –Size of a Volkswagen Endangered species

45 45 Grey Whale

46 46 Migrates 12,500 miles

47 47 Grey Whale 50 feet long 35 tons Baleen whale –Sift mud Endangered species

48 48 Killer Whale

49 49 Breaching

50 50 Killer Whale 12,000 pounds Eat fish, squid, seals and whales –200 pounds/day Swim 30 mph

51 51 Humpback Whale

52 52

53 53 Monotremes Lay eggs Incubate 12 days Lick milk from mothers fur Transitional species

54 54 Marsupials Pouched mammals Birth to tiny embryo Embryo attaches to mothers nipple to complete development

55 55 Placental Mammals Placenta nourishes embryo Long gestation period –22 months for elephant Most successful group of mammals

56 56 Placental Mammals Competitive advantage over monotremes and marsupials –Better nutrition from placenta –Less vulnerable to predators More advanced at birth

57 57 Marsupials and Monotremes in Australia Triassic Period –Mammals evolved –Pangea Jurassic Period –Monotremes and marsupials migrated to southern pangea Cretaceous Period –Pangea breaks up

58 58

59 59 Evolution of Placenta from Amniotic Egg Reptile Chorion –Oxygen from air Amnion –Provides private pond Yolk Sac –Food for embryo Allantois –Store urinary waste Mammal Chorion –Form placenta to get oxygen & food from mothers blood Amnion –Provides private pond Yolk sac –Temporarily make RBCs Allantois –Form umbilical cord

60 60

61 61 Mammal Classification 14 major orders Over 4,000 species About half are rodents

62 62 Order Monotremata Lays eggs Young lick milk from mothers fur

63 63 Order Marsupiallia Pouch

64 64 Order Insectivora Sharp-snout Small Burrow underground Eat insects

65 65 Order Chiroptera Flying mammals Elongated fingers Echolocation

66 66 Order Xenarthra Toothless or peg like teeth

67 67 Order Carnivora Large canine teeth Teeth adapted to shear flesh

68 68 Order Rodentia Chisel-like incisor teeth

69 69 Order Lagomorpha Four upper incisors Hind legs adapted for jumping

70 70 Order Cetacea Front limbs modified into flippers No hind limbs Marine

71 71 Order Pinnipedia Limbs modified for swimming Marine carnivores

72 72 Order Proboscidea Tusks Largest living land mammal

73 73 Order Artiodactyla Two or four toes

74 74 Order Perissodactyla One or three toes

75 75 Order Primates Opposable thumb Binocular vision Fingernails usually Mammary glands reduced to one thoracic pair

76 76 The End


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