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Tongue Stones An Evolution Story Told by Patrick Staley.

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Presentation on theme: "Tongue Stones An Evolution Story Told by Patrick Staley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tongue Stones An Evolution Story Told by Patrick Staley

2 Presentation Outline Legend to Science Why Use Tongue Stones to Study Evolution Parts and Features Environment Specific Evolutionary Lines

3 Magical Properties Counter-Act Toxins Snake Bite Dip in Wine

4 Folklore Eerily well-polished when dug up Petrified tongues of serpents, a creature associated with the devil. Medieval practice to dip a tonguestone in a glass of wine.

5 Japanese Legend Thumbnails of Tengu Man, a mythical mountain goblin with a Pinnochio-like long nose.

6 More Legends Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79), a great Roman naturalist, believed that they fell from the sky during lunar eclipses.

7 Saint Paul on Malta Many tongue stones on Malta Saint Paul shipwrecked on Malta in AD60. Saint Paul was bitten by a snake. Turned the tongues of serpents into stone.

8 Nicholas Steno In 1666 fishermen caught a giant shark. The local duke ordered that this curiosity be sent to Ncholas Steno. Steno is an anatomist. Steno dissected the shark. The shark teeth resembled tongue stones. Paleontology is Born.

9 Stenos Shark Head Drawing

10 In 1666 Who Thought Living matter could be turned to stone Encased in solid rock Rocks well above sea level Marine organisms on dry land

11 Abundance of Sharks Teeth Fossils? Soft Tissue vs. Bone Getting Buried Time (400 million years) Opportunity (35,000 teeth per shark)

12 Teeth per Shark Sharks continually shed their teeth, and some can shed as many as 35,000 teeth in a lifetime.

13 Shark Dentition Embedded in Flesh Constant Replacement Files and Rows of Teeth

14 Parts of a Sharks Tooth Root Crown Dental Band Cusplets Serrations Striations

15 Other Features Nutrient Grove Nutrient Foramen Longitudinal Ridges Crown Tip Crown Notch Crown Shoulder

16 Sides of a Sharks Tooth Lingual Labial Mesial Distal

17 Dentition by Location Upper or Lower Anterior Lateral Posterior Intermediate Symphseal


19 Cenozoic Evolution of the Large Sharks Climatic Context Geographic Context

20 Cenozoic Global Temperature

21 Polar Ice Earth

22 Global Geography Cretaceous Eocene Recurring Ice Ages


24 Great White Line Carcharodon carcharias Isurus hastalis Isurus planus Isurus desori

25 Carcharocles megalodon Cretolamna appendiculata Odotus obliquus Carcharocles auriculatus Carcharocles angustidens Carcharocles megalodon

26 megalodon intermediates Odotus aksuaticus Odotus chubutensis

27 megalodon side branches Paleocarcharodon orientalis Carcharocles sokolovi Parodotus benedeni

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