Presentation on theme: "Tongue Stones An Evolution Story Told by Patrick Staley."— Presentation transcript:
Tongue Stones An Evolution Story Told by Patrick Staley
Presentation Outline Legend to Science Why Use Tongue Stones to Study Evolution Parts and Features Environment Specific Evolutionary Lines
Magical Properties Counter-Act Toxins Snake Bite Dip in Wine
Folklore Eerily well-polished when dug up Petrified tongues of serpents, a creature associated with the devil. Medieval practice to dip a tonguestone in a glass of wine.
Japanese Legend Thumbnails of Tengu Man, a mythical mountain goblin with a Pinnochio-like long nose.
More Legends Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79), a great Roman naturalist, believed that they fell from the sky during lunar eclipses.
Saint Paul on Malta Many tongue stones on Malta Saint Paul shipwrecked on Malta in AD60. Saint Paul was bitten by a snake. Turned the tongues of serpents into stone.
Nicholas Steno In 1666 fishermen caught a giant shark. The local duke ordered that this curiosity be sent to Ncholas Steno. Steno is an anatomist. Steno dissected the shark. The shark teeth resembled tongue stones. Paleontology is Born.
Stenos Shark Head Drawing
In 1666 Who Thought Living matter could be turned to stone Encased in solid rock Rocks well above sea level Marine organisms on dry land
Abundance of Sharks Teeth Fossils? Soft Tissue vs. Bone Getting Buried Time (400 million years) Opportunity (35,000 teeth per shark)
Teeth per Shark Sharks continually shed their teeth, and some can shed as many as 35,000 teeth in a lifetime.
Shark Dentition Embedded in Flesh Constant Replacement Files and Rows of Teeth
Parts of a Sharks Tooth Root Crown Dental Band Cusplets Serrations Striations
Other Features Nutrient Grove Nutrient Foramen Longitudinal Ridges Crown Tip Crown Notch Crown Shoulder
Sides of a Sharks Tooth Lingual Labial Mesial Distal
Dentition by Location Upper or Lower Anterior Lateral Posterior Intermediate Symphseal
Cenozoic Evolution of the Large Sharks Climatic Context Geographic Context
Cenozoic Global Temperature
Polar Ice Earth
Global Geography Cretaceous Eocene Recurring Ice Ages
Great White Line Carcharodon carcharias Isurus hastalis Isurus planus Isurus desori