3 After studying this chapter, you will be able to: ObjectivesObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you will be able to:Name the parts of the body treated in dentistry.Describe the function of each body part treated in dentistry.Define combining forms used in building words that relate to dental practice.Identify the meaning of related abbreviations.Name the common diagnostic, pathological, and treatment terms related to dental practice.Recognize common pharmacological agents used in dental practice.
4 Terms in Dental Practice DentistryDentistryThe profession that studies, diagnoses, and treats the teeth, gums and any other part of the oral cavity and facial structure that interacts with the teeth and gums.Includes:The Dental Teampreventiondiagnosistreatmentsurgery-reconstructive-cosmeticDentistDental hygienistsDental techniciansor assistants
5 Terms in Dental Practice Oral CavityOral CavityPart of the digestive systemThe teeth and gums help with:chewing foodspeechgeneral appearanceGumsalso called gingivaedense fibrous tissue that forms a protective covering around the sockets of the teeth
6 Teeth Terms in Dental Practice Teeth Primary teeth (deciduous teeth) erupt at about 6 months oldDeciduous teeth equals 20 and are usually in place by age 4 yearsSecondary teeth (permanent teeth) begin to erupt at age 6By the mid-twenties, usually all 32 permanent teeth have developedNOTE: Permanent teeth are not replaced by the body if they are lost.
7 Terms in Dental Practice Parts of a ToothParts of a ToothCrownRoot-part projecting above the jaw line-consists of an outer layer (enamel) and inner layer (dentin)-part below the jaw line-held in place by cementum-root canals carry the blood vessels and nerves from the bottom of the jaw into the pulp cavityPulp Cavity-central portion of the tooth-contains connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves
8 Terms in Dental Practice Structure of a ToothStructure of a ToothEnamelCrownDentinPulp cavityRootRoot canalPeriodontalligamentCementum
9 Terms in Dental Practice Types of Primary TeethCentral incisorTypes of Primary TeethLateral incisorIncisors-cutting teeth located on either side of the center line of the jaw-central incisors are on either side of the center line-lateral incisors are located next to the cuspidsCuspids-also known as canines or eyeteethCuspidCenter line
10 Types of Primary Teeth Part 2 Terms in Dental PracticeTypes of Primary Teeth Part 2Types of Primary Teeth (cont’d)Molars-the first molar sits next to the cuspid-the second molar is located at the back of the child’s jawTypes of Secondary TeethBicuspids-located next to each cuspid-present only as permanent teethPermanent teeth include:-incisors-cuspids-molars-bicuspidsNote: There are three molars present with permanent teeth. The third molar is often called the wisdom tooth.
11 Terms in Dental Practice Permanent TeethIncisorsCuspid (canine)Permanent TeethBicuspids(premolars)MolarsMolarsBicuspids(premolars)Cuspid (canine)Incisors
12 Outer Surfaces of Teeth Terms in Dental PracticeOuter Surfaces of TeethOuter Surfaces of TeethLabial Surface-parts of the teeth that meet when the mouth is closedBuccal Surface-sides of teeth nearest the cheekMediallineLingual Surface-inside surface nearest the tongueLabialsurfaceMesial Surface-short side of the tooth nearest the median of the jaw lineMesial surfaceLingualsurfaceDistal surfaceDistal Surface-short side of tooth farthest from the median of the jaw lineOcclusal surfaceBuccal surface
13 Combining Forms & Abbreviations (dent) Combining Forms and AbbreviationsCombining Forms & Abbreviations (dent)Combining FormMeaningdent(o), dentigingiv(o)odont(o)toothgumtooth
14 Combining Forms & Abbreviations (DDS) Combining Forms and AbbreviationsCombining Forms & Abbreviations (DDS)AbbreviationMeaningDDSdefDEFdmfDMFRDHTMJdoctor of dental surgerydecayed, extracted, or filled (primary teeth)decayed, extracted, or filled (permanent teeth)decayed, missing, or filled (primary teeth)decayed, missing, or filled (permanent teeth)registered dental hygienisttemporomandibular joint
15 Prevention of Tooth Decay Diagnostic, Pathological, andTreatment TermsPrevention of Tooth DecayPrevention of Tooth DecayMost dental work begins with preventing tooth decay by insisting on:cleaning of teethcleaning of gumsfluoride treatment for someRegular cleaning of teeth and gums removes plaque which is microorganisms that grow on the crowns and along the roots of teeth causing decay of teeth and damage to the gums.
16 Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment TermsTooth DecayTooth Decaycan be detected early using dental x-rayscauses toothaches (odontalgia)may require a filling if decay has not reached the central part of the toothFillingsdental restorationdrilling is done to remove the decayed areaamalgam is placed into the space
17 Dental Specialists Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment Terms If decay is deeper within the tooth, an abscess may result.Endodontists-specialize in root canal workPeriodontists-specialize in treating gum diseaseDentalSpecialistsOrthodontists-specialize in the correction and prevention of irregularities in the placement and appearance of teeth
18 Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment TermsTreatmentsTreatmentsDentures-replacement teeth-partials replace one or more tooth-partials attached to other teeth are called bridges-full dentures replace all teethBraces-malocclusions can be corrected with braces or surgery
19 Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment TermsOther TreatmentsOther TreatmentsTemporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctionCosmetic SurgeryBleaching of teeth
20 Commonly Used Anesthetics Pharmacological TermsCommonly Used AnestheticsLocal anesthetics are used during certain treatments to numb the area.Commonly Used AnestheticsNovocaine-is injected near the site to be treatedNitrous oxide-gas inhaled by the patient-also called laughing gasDentists may prescribe antibiotics and pain killers after a procedure but they have limitations to the amount and strength of medication they can prescribe.
21 Apply Your Knowledge Apply Your Knowledge Brian, age 4 is requesting a snack. His mother can prepare food for a child having:A. 20 deciduous teethB. 15 deciduous teethC. 30 secondary teethAnswer: A. 20 deciduous teeth
22 Apply Your Knowledge Part 2 Karen has fallen and “chipped” the outer coating of her tooth. Which of the following structures has she damaged?A. dentinB. enamelC. pulpAnswer: B. enamel
23 Apply Your Knowledge Part 3 Central incisorLateral incisorIdentify the labeled teeth.Cuspid