3 Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Name the parts of the body treated in dentistry. Describe the function of each body part treated in dentistry. Define combining forms used in building words that relate to dental practice. Identify the meaning of related abbreviations. Name the common diagnostic, pathological, and treatment terms related to dental practice. Recognize common pharmacological agents used in dental practice.
4 Dentistry The profession that studies, diagnoses, and treats the teeth, gums and any other part of the oral cavity and facial structure that interacts with the teeth and gums. Includes: prevention diagnosis treatment surgery -reconstructive -cosmetic The Dental Team Dentist Dental hygienists Dental technicians or assistants Dentistry
5 Oral Cavity Part of the digestive system chewing food speech general appearance Gums also called gingivae dense fibrous tissue that forms a protective covering around the sockets of the teeth The teeth and gums help with: Oral Cavity
6 Teeth NOTE: Permanent teeth are not replaced by the body if they are lost. Primary teeth (deciduous teeth) erupt at about 6 months old Deciduous teeth equals 20 and are usually in place by age 4 years Secondary teeth (permanent teeth) begin to erupt at age 6 By the mid-twenties, usually all 32 permanent teeth have developed Teeth
7 Parts of a Tooth Crown -part projecting above the jaw line -consists of an outer layer (enamel) and inner layer (dentin) Root -part below the jaw line -held in place by cementum -root canals carry the blood vessels and nerves from the bottom of the jaw into the pulp cavity Pulp Cavity -central portion of the tooth -contains connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves Parts of a Tooth
8 Structure of a Tooth Crown Enamel Dentin Pulp cavity Root Root canal Periodontal ligament Cementum Structure of a Tooth
9 Types of Primary Teeth IncisorsIncisors -cutting teeth located on either side of the center line of the jaw -central incisors are on either side of the center line -lateral incisors are located next to the cuspids CuspidsCuspids -also known as canines or eyeteeth Lateral incisor Central incisor Cuspid Center line
10 Types of Primary Teeth Part 2 MolarsMolars -the first molar sits next to the cuspid -the second molar is located at the back of the childs jaw Types of Primary Teeth (contd) Types of Secondary Teeth Permanent teeth include: -incisors -cuspids -molars -bicuspids BicuspidsBicuspids -located next to each cuspid -present only as permanent teeth Note: There are three molars present with permanent teeth. The third molar is often called the wisdom tooth.
12 Outer Surfaces of Teeth Labial Surface -parts of the teeth that meet when the mouth is closed Buccal Surface Lingual Surface Mesial Surface -short side of the tooth nearest the median of the jaw line Distal Surface Outer Surfaces of Teeth Buccal surface Occlusal surface Distal surface Mesial surface Labial surface Medial line Lingual surface -sides of teeth nearest the cheek -short side of tooth farthest from the median of the jaw line -inside surface nearest the tongue
14 Combining Forms & Abbreviations (DDS) Abbreviation Meaning DDS def DEF dmf DMF RDH TMJ doctor of dental surgery decayed, extracted, or filled (primary teeth) decayed, extracted, or filled (permanent teeth) decayed, missing, or filled (primary teeth) decayed, missing, or filled (permanent teeth) registered dental hygienist temporomandibular joint
15 Prevention of Tooth Decay Most dental work begins with preventing tooth decay by insisting on: cleaning of teeth cleaning of gums fluoride treatment for some Regular cleaning of teeth and gums removes plaque which is microorganisms that grow on the crowns and along the roots of teeth causing decay of teeth and damage to the gums. Prevention of Tooth Decay
16 Tooth Decay can be detected early using dental x-rays causes toothaches (odontalgia) may require a filling if decay has not reached the central part of the tooth Fillings dental restoration drilling is done to remove the decayed area amalgam is placed into the space
17 Dental Specialists If decay is deeper within the tooth, an abscess may result. Dental Specialists Orthodontists -specialize in the correction and prevention of irregularities in the placement and appearance of teeth Endodontists -specialize in root canal work Periodontists -specialize in treating gum disease
18 Treatments Dentures -replacement teeth -partials replace one or more tooth -partials attached to other teeth are called bridges -full dentures replace all teeth Braces -malocclusions can be corrected with braces or surgery Treatments
19 Other Treatments Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction Cosmetic Surgery Bleaching of teeth Other Treatments
20 Commonly Used Anesthetics Local anesthetics are used during certain treatments to numb the area. Commonly Used Anesthetics Novocaine -is injected near the site to be treated Nitrous oxide -gas inhaled by the patient -also called laughing gas Dentists may prescribe antibiotics and pain killers after a procedure but they have limitations to the amount and strength of medication they can prescribe.
21 Apply Your Knowledge Brian, age 4 is requesting a snack. His mother can prepare food for a child having: A. 20 deciduous teeth B. 15 deciduous teeth C. 30 secondary teeth Answer: A. 20 deciduous teeth
22 Apply Your Knowledge Part 2 Karen has fallen and chipped the outer coating of her tooth. Which of the following structures has she damaged? A. dentin B. enamel C. pulp Answer: B. enamel
23 Apply Your Knowledge Part 3 Identify the labeled teeth. Central incisor Cuspid Lateral incisor