32. What characters make a mammal? Suckle young,but may still lay eggsFurryEars with ear bonesSecondary palateSpecialised teeth -usually grow onceSimple jaw, complex jaw musclesWarm bloodedDiaphragmErect gait
42b. What skull characters make a mammal? Reptilian jawSimple teethQuadrateJaw hingeSquamosalArticularSimple biteDentaryMammalian jawArticular andquadrate nowear bonesSecondary palateSquamosalJaw hingeComplicatedbiteDentarySpecialised teethMasseter muscle
53. Mammal-like reptiles Thrinaxodon Some tooth specialisation SecondarypalateRigid spineComplex jaw,no ear bones?FurChewingmuscleEndotherm?DiaphragmSprawling gaitSmall size = small eggs, small hatchlings, much care,? suckling?
64. Mammals and dinosaursLimited Mesozoic radiation, all animals under 15kg. Mainlysmall scavengers and carnivores.MammalsCretaceousorigin. Evolvedon LaurentiaMarsupialsCretaceous origin,evolved on GondwanaMonotremesprobably evolved nearJurassic/Cretaceous boundary.Preciseancestry uncertainMultituberculatessuccessfulMesozoic clade,known principallyfrom teethMorganucodonLower Jurassictiny, agile carnivorewith complicated teeth
75. Palaeogene radiation of mammals Large flightless birdsradiated to become topterrestrial predatorsLarge crocodiles radiatedto becometop marinepredatorsMammals radiatedinto a large range of other niches.90% of mammalian groupsappeared within 10 Maof dinosaur extinction.Initially herbivores, omnivores,insectivores, scavengers.Gradually replaced birds and reptiles
86. Mammals on a cooling Earth Palaeogene EarthWarm,wet,low ice,abundant forestsMany isolated continentspromote intense speciationNeogene EarthCool, dry, large icecaps,evolution of grass,formation of widespreadsavannaHimalayas riseAmericas collideContinental collision and climatechange precipitate major extinctionmodern mammals survive and radiate
96b. Dinosaurs arrive Illium Birds Early Jurassic Ischium and pubis Sauropodslizard-hipped.VegetariansEvolved extremely large size,often in excess of 20 m in lengthand 50 tonness in weight.TheropodsLate Triassic.All theropodswere predators,includingTryannosaurus rex.Ornithischiansbird hipped dinosaursAll herbivores, includingarmoured formsIguanadontsand duck-billed dinosaurs.Highly modified teeth and jawsIlliumPubisIschiumArchosaurs