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Complications of Extraction of Impacted Teeth. Outline I.Soft Tissue Injuries II.Complications with the Tooth Being Extracted III.Injuries to Adjacent.

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Presentation on theme: "Complications of Extraction of Impacted Teeth. Outline I.Soft Tissue Injuries II.Complications with the Tooth Being Extracted III.Injuries to Adjacent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complications of Extraction of Impacted Teeth

2 Outline I.Soft Tissue Injuries II.Complications with the Tooth Being Extracted III.Injuries to Adjacent Teeth IV.Injuries to Osseous Structures V.Injuries To Adjacent Structures VI.Oroantral Communications VII.Postoperative Bleeding VIII.Delayed Healing & Infection

3 I. Soft Tissue Injuries

4 1. Tearing Mucosal Flap Causes Due to an inadequately sized flap which is retracted beyond the tissue`s ability to stretch. As with a short envelope flap when the area of surgery is at the apex.

5 Prevention -Adequately sized flaps -Gentle Retraction Management Reposition the flap & suture If the tear is jagged, trim it before suturing

6 2. Puncture Wound of Soft Tissue Cause Instrument Slippage Prevention Controlled force Management Suturing to prevent infection & allow healing to occur

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8 3. Stretch or Abrasion Injury Cause Bur shank or retractor injury Prevention Care Management Keep it moist ( ointment ) Heals within 5 – 10 days

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10 II. Complications with the tooth Being Extracted

11 1. Root Fracture Cause Long, curved, divergent roots Excessive force during extraction Prevention Proper exposure & bone removal

12 2. Root Displacement Into: Mandibular Canal Lingual Pouch Infratemporal Space Maxillary Sinus

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16 III. Injuries to Adjacent Teeth 1.Luxation of Adjacent Teeth 2.Fracture of Adjacent Restoration Cause Carelesness Prevention Judicious use of elevators

17 IV. Injuries to Osseous Structures

18 1. Fracture of Alveolar Process Fracture of the Buccal or Lingual Cortex Cause Inadequate exposure & excessive force Prevention Adequate bone removal & eposure

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20 2. Fracture of Maxillary Tuberosity Cause Excessive force Prevention Proper support and controlled force Management If still attached; dissect and remove the tooth If detached; smooth bone edges & suture

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22 3. Fracture of the Mandible Cause Excessive force Prevention Proper bone removal & controlled force

23 Photoelastic model of the mandible, showing the development of stress during a luxation attempt of the third molar when insufficient bone has been removed from the tooth peripherally

24 V. Injuries to Adjacent Structures

25 1. Injury to Inferior Alveolar Nerve Cause -Excessive extraction force in case of curved roots -Sectioning the tooth all the way inferiorly Prevention -Proper exposure & bone removal -Controlled force -Careful setioning, leaving a shell of the tooth

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27 2. Injury to the Lingual Nerve Cause -Placement of the retromolar incision far lingually -Sectioning the tooth all the way to the lingual cortex Prevention -Proper incision -Careful sectioning, leaving a shell of the tooth

28 3. Injury to the TMJ Cause Inadequate support of the mandible during extraction Prevention Use of bite block Management Reduction

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30 Vi. Oroantral Communication Cause During extraction of an impacted maxillary canine -Excessive bone removal -Failure to locate the tooth Prevention -Proper preoperative radiographic evaluation -Proper bone removal -Controlled force

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32 VII. Postoperative Bleeding Cause -Bleeding at wound margins -Bleeding at a bony foramen within the socket -Medical Problem

33 Prevention -Good history taking (coagulopathy, medications…etc) -Atrumatic surgical extraction (clean incisions, gentle management of soft tissues, smoothen bony specules, curette granulation tissue) -Obtain good homeostasis at surgery - Postoperative instructions

34 Management Local Measures Pressure packs Suturing Ligate bleeding vessels Burnish bone Apply material to aid in hemostasis (surgicell, collaplug)

35 VIII. Delayed Healing & Infection

36 1. Infection Cause Debris left under the flap Prevention Irrigation Management Debridement & Drainage

37 2. Dry Socket (Alveolar Ostitis) Cause -Lysis of a fully formed blood clot before the clot is replaced with granulation tissue. -Higher incidence with smokers & patients taking oral contaceptives. Prevention -Presurgical irrigation with antimicrobial agents,e.g: chlorhexidine -Intraoperative irrigation with saline

38 Management – Irrigate with warm saline – Remove old clots – Place sedative dressing – Prescribe mild analgesics – Reassess after 24 to 48 hours


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