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Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry Dr. Jeff Johnson Division of Pediatric Dentistry Department of Oral Health Science University of Kentucky.

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Presentation on theme: "Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry Dr. Jeff Johnson Division of Pediatric Dentistry Department of Oral Health Science University of Kentucky."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry Dr. Jeff Johnson Division of Pediatric Dentistry Department of Oral Health Science University of Kentucky

2 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- Despite the modern advances in prevention of dental caries and an increased understanding of the importance of maintaining the natural dentition, many teeth are still lost prematurely. The primary objective of pulp treatment of an affected tooth is to maintain the integrity and health of oral tissues.

3 Additional reasons to preserve the integrity of the primary dentition are to 1.Reduce the likelihood of mesial drift and the resultant malocclusion. 2.Aid in mastication. 3.Preserve a pulpally involved primary tooth in the absence of a succedaneous tooth. 4.Prevent possible speech problems. 5.Maintain esthetics. 6.Prevent aberrant tongue habits 7.Prevent the psychological effects associated with early tooth loss. 8.Maintain normal eruption time of the succedaneous teeth.

4 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- Before attempting pulp therapy in the primary dentition, the clinician should be familiar with the basic differences between primary and permanent root canal anatomy. As a review, the pulp performs five major functions: –Induction Pulp participates in the induction and development of odontoblasts and dentin, which, when formed, induce enamel formation. –Formation Odontoblasts form dentin. Dentin is formed continuously throughout the life of the tooth. Odontoblasts can also form a unique type of dentin in response to injury, such as occurs with caries, trauma, and restorative procedures.

5 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- Pulp functions (continued) –Nutrition Via dentinal tubules, pulp supplies nutrients that are essential for dentin formation and hydration. –Defense Odontoblasts form dentin in response to injury, particularly when the original dentin thickness has been compromised by caries, wear, trauma, or restorative procedures. Pulp also has the ability to elicit an inflammatory and immunologic response in an attempt to neutralize or eliminate invasion of dentin by caries- causing microorganisms and their byproducts.

6 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- Pulp functions (continued) –Sensation Through the nervous system, pulp transmits sensations mediated through enamel or dentin to the higher nerve centers. The pulp of the primary tooth is histologically similar to that of a permanent tooth. Normal pulp has the following histological components: –Lymph vessels –Blood vessels –Nerve tissue –Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells –Fibroblasts –Defense cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, an macrophages) –Odontoblasts –Osteoclasts/Odontoclasts

7 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- Characteristics of Pulp Tissue –Most similar to connective tissue –Tremendous healing potential –Apical vascularity is important to healing potential –Coronal tissue is more cellular –Apical tissue is more fibrous –Pulp becomes more fibrotic with age

8 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- The healing potential of healthy pulp tissue is a function of: –The vascularity of the pulp. –The absence of cariogenic and inflammatory bacteria. –The cellular/structural integrity of the pulp/dentin/enamel complex. –The absence of a chemical and/or thermal insult.

9 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- The root canals of anterior primary teeth are relatively simple, have few irregularities, and are easily treated endodontically. The root canal systems found in posterior primary teeth, conversely, contain many ramifications and deltas between canals making thorough debridement quiet difficult. Generally, there is only one canal present in each root of the primary molars when the formation of the roots has been completed. The primary tooth root will begin to resorb as soon as the root length is completed. The resorption causes the position of the apical foramen to change continually.

10 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- Simultaneously, secondary dentin is deposited within the root canal system. The deposition produces variations and alterations in the number and size of the root canals, as well a many small connecting branches between the facial and lingual aspects of the canals. Accessory canals, lateral canals, and apical ramifications of the pulp may be found in 10 to 20% of primary molars. Primary teeth have characteristic ribbon-like radicular pulp. Primary molar roots are widely divergent and curved to allow for the development of the succedaneous tooth.

11 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review-- The maxillary primary molars may have two to five canals, with the palatal root usually rounder and longer than the two facial roots. In the mesiofacial root, two canals occur in approximately 75% of the primary maxillary first molars and 85 to 95% of primary maxillary second molars. The primary mandibular first and second molars usually have three canals which generally correspond to the external root canal anatomy. Approximately 75% of the mesial roots in primary first molars contain two canals; whereas in primary second molars, 85% of the mesial roots contain two canals.

12 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review--

13 The thickness of enamel and dentin coronal to the pulp chamber is also thinner in a primary tooth. Since the distance from the occlusal surface and the floor of the pulp chamber is much shorter than in a permanent tooth, care must be taken when making an access opening into the pulp chamber to prevent perforation into the furcation area.

14 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- History of Pain –Three important factors to consider Duration (how long does it hurt?) Frequency (how often does it hurt?) Location (where does it hurt?) Types of Pain and Pulp Status –IrreversibleNonvital Therapy Spontaneous/Non-stimulated Nocturnal Constant

15 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- Types of Pain and Pulp Status (continued) –ReversibleVital Therapy Thermal Chemical Intermittent Stimulated Extent of Lesion –Location –Color Mobility –Differentiate between physiologic root resorption and pathologic root/bone loss

16 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- Soft Tissue Swelling/Lymphadenopathy –Antibiotic treatment for dental infections in children Penicillin V25 – 50 mg/kgQID/7 days Clindamycin16 – 20 mg/kgQID/7 days Pulp exposure –Hemorrhagic versus Necrotic

17 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --A Review--

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19 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- Pulp Testing –Percussion Testing is most reliable in primary teeth. –Thermal sensitivity Testing is also reliable in primary teeth. –Electrical Pulp Testing is NOT reliable in primary teeth (due to the patients response).

20 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- Radiographic Examination –Radiographic evidence of pulpal pathology includes: Pathologic bone resorption. –In the presence of infection, bone is destroyed. –The bone destruction is seen in the furcation area of the tooth. –When the infection is chronic and long-standing, the resorption can become extensive involving not only the furcation but the apical areas as well. –The finding of bone resorption is indicative of widespread pulpal necrosis and nonvitality of the associated tooth.

21 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- Radiographic Examination –Radiographic evidence of pulpal pathology includes (continued): Pathologic root resorption. Commonly associated with pathologic bone resorption is resorption of the root of the affected tooth itself. Root resorption is indicative of the presence of the infection for a prolonged period and generally precludes the employment of any pulp therapy procedure. Internal/External resorption. If present, it will probably be seen in the root canals and again is evidence of advanced degenerative changes throughout the pulp. Pulp therapy will generally not be successful as the resorptive process is not readily retarded.

22 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- Radiographic Examination –Radiographic evidence of pulpal pathology includes (continued): Calcific changes. Calcified bodies (known as calcific masses or globules) present in the pulp indicate advanced pulpal degeneration with inflammation spread throughout the coronal portion of the pulp. Widened periodontal membrane/ligament. A widened PDL is usually indicative of pulpal pathology.

23 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Clinical Assessment of Pulp Status-- There is a poor correlation between clinical symptoms and histologic pulp status.

24 Infected Pulp Pain (No Swelling) Infection Localized Treat Tooth Only (Pulpal Therapy or Extraction) Parulis (With or Without Pain) Infection Localized Treat Tooth Only (Pulpectomy or Extraction) Cellulitis (Facial Swelling) Infection Not Localized Moderate Infection (Patient is taking fluids well; only slightly febrile) Oral Antibiotic Therapy + Treat Tooth Severe Infection (Patient dehydrated and febrile) Hospitalization for IV Antibiotic Therapy and Fluids + Treat Tooth

25 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- The treatment objectives for vital pulp therapy include: –Eradication of infection. –Maintenance of tooth/teeth in a state of health. –Preservation of space for underlying permanent tooth/teeth. –Capitalization of reparative ability of the pulp.

26 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Techniques of Vital Pulp Therapy 1.Indirect pulp cap/treatment (IPT) – Gross Caries Removal 2.Direct pulp cap/treatment (DPT) 3.Pulpotomy (formocresol) 4.Pulpotomy (other categories of medicaments) 5.Pulpotomy (non-pharmacotherapeutic) 6.Partial pulpectomy

27 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Indirect Pulp Cap/Treatment (IPT) –Definition: In essence, an IPT is the application of a drug over a minimal amount of carious dentin with no clinical exposure of the pulp with the objective of generating reparative dentin formation beneath the carious lesion. –Indicated when the chance of pulp exposure with complete caries removal is 75 %. –Place calcium hydroxide (Dycal) or other medicament (i.e. Vitrabond, Fuji II, etc.) over remaining caries. –The temporary restoration and marginal seal are key to success. –Can be done in primary and permanent teeth.

28 Primary Tooth Direct Pulp Cap/Treatment –Contraindicated for carious pulp exposures –Valid for small mechanical or traumatic exposures –Optimal chance for favorable prognosis depends on case selection –At UKCD, direct pulp caps on primary teeth are not considered ideal or acceptable treatment Permanent Tooth Direct Pulp Cap/Treatment –Valid for carious lesions in close proximity to pulp but not carious exposures –Valid for mechanical or traumatic exposures –Case selection is critical Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy--

29 Pulpotomy (Pharmacotherapeutic) –Objectives 1.Preserve vitality of radicular pulp 2.Amputate infected coronal pulp 3.Treat remaining pulp with medicament 4.Neutralize residual infectious process 5.Avoid dystrophic pulpal change 6.Avoid breakdown of periradicular area –Indications 1.Mechanical or carious exposure 2.Inflammation limited to coronal pulp 3.Absence of spontaneous pain 4.Absence of swelling or alveolar abscess formation

30 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Pulpotomy (continued) –Contraindications History of unprovoked toothache Presence of fistula or swelling Evidence of necrotic/irreversibly damaged pulp Uncontrolled pulpal hemorrhage Periapical or bifurcation radiolucency Pathologic resorption of pulp Dystrophic calcification Primary root length less than 2/3

31 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy –S–Success Rate 62 to 97% (depending on the study and follow up protocol) Clinical Success Radiographic Success Histological Success Formocresol is the standard against which pulpotomy alternatives are rated.

32 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Actions of Formocresol in Pulpotomy Technique –Fixation with progressive fibrosis Acidophilic zone: fixation Pale staining zone: atrophy Broad zone of inflammatory cells –Bactericidal –No dentinal bridging

33 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Local Toxicity –Ranly, 1984 –Histologic failurepersistent chronic inflammation –Immunologic risk –Succedaneous tooth damage –Effect on exfoliation (accelerated?) –Lack of resorbability

34 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Tissue Effects –Highly toxic to cells –Depresses fibroblastic respiration and matrix synthesis –Blocks RNA and protein synthesis –Chronic inflammatory response –May be a systemic concern when doing multiple treatments (i.e. OR case)

35 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Dilution of Formocresol ( Morowa, Garcia-Godoy) –1/5 dilution 1 part formocresol 3 parts glycerin 1 part distilled water –Comparable to full strength in terms of histology and clinic success –Neither produces ideal histology –Long-term clinical success of 1/5 dilution is questionable –At UKCD, we use Buckleys Solution (19% Formaldehyde, 35% Cresol, and 17.5% Glycerin)

36 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Time of Formocresol Application –Direct relation between application time and inflammation –One minute produces less inflammation than 5 minutes –Neither time shows inflammation in apical third Prevalence of Formocresol Use –The majority of pediatric dentists worldwide (76.8%) utilize full-strength formocresol or the one-fifth dilution as the preferred pulpotomy medicament for vital primary teeth (Fuks, 1991).

37 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (Primary Tooth) 1.Identification/Diagnosis of offending tooth based upon diagnostic criteria (history, symptoms, radiographic and clinical evaluation) Can Vital Pulp Therapy provide adequate and appropriate care for the patient?

38 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 2.Obtain Informed Consent –Explain to the parent/legal guardian the procedure. Answer any questions to his/her satisfaction. Document in the chart that you have been granted verbal consent for the pulpotomy procedure.

39 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 3.Achieve adequate anesthesia 4.Place Rubber Dam –R–Rubber Dam Placement/Utilization is a Necessity when performing pulp therapy!

40 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 5.With a slow speed hand piece, remove caries

41 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 6.With a high speed hand piece and a 330 bur, remove roof of pulp chamber exposing all canals

42 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 7.Remove all coronal pulp with a slow speed hand piece and a #4 or #6 round bur. Remove all vital tissue ledges near canal orifices.

43 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 8.After all coronal pulp tissue has been removed, wet 2-3 cotton pellets with formocresol and squeeze between 2 x 2 gauze to remove the excess. Place cotton pellets in the pulp chamber (making sure that they contact the pulp tissue in the coronal portion of the canals) for 5 minutes.

44 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 9.If hemorrhage has ceased, place a thick mix of zinc oxide and eugenol paste into the chamber (use an amalgam carrier and a cotton pellet to ensure proper condensation/placement).

45 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy-- Formocresol Pulpotomy Technique at UKCD (continued) 10. Complete the planned restoration. A tooth having had vital pulp therapy will require full coverage protection (i.e. Stainless Steel Crown) for long-term success.

46 Pulp Therapy in Pediatric Dentistry --Vital Pulp Therapy--

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