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Fig. 16.1.

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Presentation on theme: "Fig. 16.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fig. 16.1

2 Fig. 16.2

3 Basic Terms Used for Feeding Mechanisms of Vertebrates
1. Suspension-feeding (= filter-feeding) - filter small particles (alive or dead, depending on species) out of water column 2. Suction-feeding - open mouth, suck in food 3. Ram-feeding - open mouth, swim over food Ram-Suction Index - compares movement of food relative to movement of feeder 4. Inertial-feeding - inertia of food is used to move it in oral cavity 5. Transport - movement of food within oral cavity (by water currents in aquatic vertebrates or tongue in tetrapods) 6. Mastication - physical reduction of food size by chewing

4 Fig. 16.3

5 Wear Patterns of Teeth are Functionally Important
Enamel is > 95% inorganic matter; it is the hardest substance in vertebrate bodies Enamel is harder than dentine Dentine is harder than cement These properties mean that teeth can be “self-sharpening”

6 Some Important Terms for Teeth
Polyphyodont - multiple generations of tooth replacement (most vertebrates) Diphyodont - two sets of teeth: milk and permanent (most mammals; incisor, canine and premolar teeth are replaced) Monophyodont - a single set of teeth (e.g., cetaceans) Homodont - teeth of similar shape along jaw Heterodont - teeth of different shape along the jaw Tooth plate or Toothplate - at least two uses are common: 1. Many individual teeth fused together at their bases; separate cusps are still visible (e.g., in pharynx of fishes) 2. Fusion of individual teeth during ontogeny: separate cusps may not still be visible (e.g., lungfishes, chimaeras)

7 Fig. 16.4

8 Fig. 16.5

9 Types of Mammalian Teeth and Dental Formulae
Incisor teeth (I), typically these are replaced Canine teeth (C), typically these are replaced Premolar teeth (P), typically these are replaced Molar teeth (M), typically these are not replaced Formulae are expressed as type # in upper jaw/# in lower jaw I 5/4, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 4/4 = opossum I 2/2, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 3/3 = humans

10 Fig. 16.6 Carnassial Pair: P4-M1

11 Fig. 16.7

12 Terms for Mammalian Molars
Tribosphenic molars - plesiomorphic condition seen in opossums and insectivores Bunodont molars - low-crowned condition seen in omnivores such as humans and pigs Lophodont molars (e.g., Rhinoceros, Fig. 16-9A) Selenodont molars (e.g., deer, Fig. 16-9B). Molarization of premolars (remember that premolars are replaced wheras molars are not replaced.) High-crowned, or hypsodont, molars (e.g., horse, Fig C).

13 Fig. 16.8

14 Teeth of Herbivores Fig. 16.9

15 Jaw Mechanics of Actinopterygians 1: Early Actinopterygians

16 Jaw Mechanics of Sharks

17 Jaw Mechanics of Actinopterygians 2: Teleosts

18 Jaw Mechanics of Aquatic Salamanders (Ambystoma)

19 Cranial Kinesis in Varanid Lizards

20 Jaw Mechanics of Cats Fig

21 Jaw Mechanics of Carnivores versus Herbivores

22 Palates Fig

23 Tongues Fig

24 Role of Tongue in Feeding System of Lizards

25 Salivary Glands Fig

26 Fig

27 Kinesis and Fang Erection System of Rattlesnakes
Focus 16.1

28 Kinesis in Beak of Birds
Focus 16.1

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