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Dental Injuries 101 Nicole M. Breton BS,RDH

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1 Dental Injuries 101 Nicole M. Breton BS,RDH
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2 Dental Injuries 101 An average of 22,000 occur annually among children less than 18 years of age. Over 80% of all dental injuries involve the upper teeth. 30% of preschoolers have had a dental injury of some kind. Of all sports, baseball and basketball were associated with the largest number of dental injuries. Children with primary teeth, less than 7 years old, sustained over half of the dental injuries in activities associated with home furniture. Outdoor recreational products and activities were associated with the largest number of dental injuries among children ages 7-12 years of age. Understand how trauma to primary teeth can affect permanent teeth. Recognize the different types of trauma.

3 Management and dental trauma evaluation
Dental Injuries 101 Management and dental trauma evaluation Check airway, breathing, and, circulation Determine if there are any other life-threatening injuries present. Perform a neurological exam. Assess the cervical spine. Evaluate extra oral soft tissue injuries. Conduct intraoral examination Determine if the injury is to primary or permanent teeth Assess availability of dental care If tooth/teeth are knocked look for them or they may have been swallowed. Emergency response system may be called.

4 Dental Injuries 101 Three broad categories of injuries result from impacts during play to the soft tissues, the jaws and teeth: Soft Tissues – bruises, lacerations and cuts to the lips, cheeks and tongue. Jaws – Dislocations of the lower jaw (mandible) or fractures of the upper arch (maxillary). Dental – Tooth related; this can be as simple as a chipped tooth or as serious as an avulsion (tooth removed from the socket) Soft tissues will have a lot of bleeding, apply ice apply pressure if applicable. Jaws The alveolar bones more pliable in children. Treatment may be different for primary teeth compared to permanent teeth. Jaw fractures signs and symptoms localized tenderness, may not close mouth or there is a deviation on opening and closing, Pain Soft tissue will have a lot of bleeding try to control bleeding) Apply pressure and ice pack/ The alveolar bone is more pliable in children. Treatment for permanent teeth may differ from primary.

5 Dental Injuries 101 The goal is to try to save the teeth that have been affected. Avoid tooth loss Assessment, diagnosis and treatment will differ in damaged baby teeth compared to adult teeth. Keep the child comfortable.

6 Dental Injuries 101 Immediate treatment – within 5 minutes
For a tooth that has been completely knocked out (avulsed tooth) Physically try to place the tooth back into the socket Rinse the tooth with clean water: do not scrub or scrape the root surfaces. Hold the tooth’s crown and push it back into the socket. You will need to hold the tooth in the socket for several minutes to keep it from extruding back out of the socket. It is okay if the tooth is not completely aligned. The dentist can adjust it later.

7 What if no one can replant the tooth?
Dental Injuries 101 What if no one can replant the tooth? Control the bleeding with pressure. Place the tooth in either cold milk or the patient’s saliva to keep it from drying out. The person needs to transported to their dental provider/ emergency room immediately.

8 Why replant the tooth within 5 minutes?
Dental Injuries 101 Why replant the tooth within 5 minutes? Evidence suggests that placing the tooth back into the socket is an important factor for long term survival of knocked out teeth. Two other factors are also important the removal of the tissue so there will a low risk of an infection. Root canal would be the preferred treatment. Age can be a factor at the time of injury. The jawbones, roots and teeth are at different phases of development. This can affect treatment decisions.

9 Dental Injuries 101 More than 5 minutes
Transporting the tooth in milk or the person’s own saliva will keep the tooth from drying out. If the tooth dries out, it will be unable to regenerate the periodontal ligament cells. If it goes longer than 15 minutes, the long term outcome is less favorable this may cause fusion of the tooth to bone ankylosis and granular root resorption and potential tooth loss over a number of years.

10 What if a baby tooth is completely knocked out?
Dental Injuries 101 What if a baby tooth is completely knocked out? Primary teeth (baby) are different than adult teeth and the treatment is different. Primary teeth are generally not replanted into the socket. The reason is for not replanting is that the primary tooth may cause an infection to spread to the permanent tooth. It may also affect the eruption pattern of the permanent tooth. .

11 Dental Injuries 101 Panorex of mixed dentition

12 Urgent Treatment – Within 6 hours
Dental Injuries 101 Urgent Treatment – Within 6 hours A painful injury from a permanent tooth moved from its original position This will cause the tooth/teeth to be driven in or out of the jaw. This may cause a fracture to the roots of the teeth. The person should seek treatment as soon as possible. If the person has a dental provider it’s best to contact them immediately. The dentist may be able to splint the teeth back together.

13 Dental Injuries 101

14 Primary (baby) Tooth Injuries
Dental Injuries Primary (baby) Tooth Injuries If the child is unable to bite and close his teeth together normally, you should contact the child’s dental provider as soon as possible, or go to the emergency department of the nearest hospital. Primary teeth can be treated in up to 6 hours. This will usually not have an impact on long-term outcomes. Contact the child’s medical and or dental provider. Following treatment with pain control and some rest may result in the child being more comfortable with treatment.

15 Dental Injuries 101 Less Urgent Treatment – Within 12 Hours
Fractured or Chipped Permanent Tooth Crown fractures are the most common traumatic injury. These teeth will be sensitive to temperature. These will need medical/dental follow up, but treatment of the pulp nerve exposure will not affect long term outcomes. Contact the child’s dental/medical provider.

16 Less Urgent Treatment – Within 12 Hours
Dental Injuries 101 Less Urgent Treatment – Within 12 Hours Primary Tooth A chipped primary tooth is treated like a permanent tooth – depending on the extent of the injury. The primary tooth will need to be evaluated to see if it caused damage to the permanent tooth. Keep the child comfortable. Contact their dental/medical provider. Save the tooth fragment if possible.

17 Mouthguards Protect teeth!
Dental Injuries 101 Mouthguards Protect teeth!

18 Dental Injuries 101 Mouthguards
Mouthguards are designed to absorb and distribute the forces of impact received while participating in athletic activities. Properly fitted mouthguards help protect the soft tissues of the lip, cheeks, gums, and tongue by covering the sharp surfaces of the teeth. They can also reduce the potential for jaw joint fractures and displacement by cushioning against the impact. They can reduce the force upon impact helping to protect the jaws from fracture. .

19 Dental Injuries 101 Your Role in Injury Prevention It is far better to prevent injuries than to have to deal with them after they occur. Anterior trauma can have life-long consequences affecting aesthetics, self-image, and pocketbook. Raising awareness and stressing prevention to parents of young children are important public health messages. A trusted clinician is in a powerful position to provide preventive recommendations to parents.

20 Dental Injuries 101

21 Dental Injuries Pictures obtained from
For more information about treating dental injuries please visit Pictures obtained from

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