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23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Usability Standards for Biometric Systems: Options, Opportunities, Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Usability Standards for Biometric Systems: Options, Opportunities, Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Usability Standards for Biometric Systems: Options, Opportunities, Resources Marek Rejman-Greene Home Office Scientific Development Branch, UK

2 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Why support the user in a biometric system? Effectiveness –for operator/end user Efficiency –for operator/end user Accessibility –for (partially, multiply) disabled Cultural accessibility –reduce dependency on written instructions Reduction of User discomfort –in unfamiliar/stressful/encumbered situations

3 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Aims of talk Introduce current standardisation activities –Pictograms, Icons and Symbols Discuss required research Identify wider context of biometric usability standards –In the context of the end-to-end user experience –IRIS entry into UK –US-VISIT exit trial in Baltimore –Portuguese RAPID entry-exit (Faro, Lisbon, Oporto)

4 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Current standardisation efforts ISO/IEC WD 24779: –Pictograms, Icons and Symbols for Use with Biometric Systems WD 37N2244 NIST Comments: 37N2603

5 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics ISO/IEC WD 24779 Recognition Scenarios: –Verification, Identification: Yes –Enrolment: No in general, this is supervised Required symbols: –General use of biometric device and its type/modality eg. Facial recognition or fingerprints –Where to stand, look or to place finger. –Wait (or hold steady): for process to complete –Success: process complete –Failure –Re-try (the same characteristic) –Try another finger or eye –CDN: Seek human assistance –Give up ISO standardisation for ICONS

6 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Other components Presentation of identifier or document or token –entry of numeric identifier –placement of document –placement of token –no identifier or document required Other information: –privacy/data protection assurance, redress mechanisms, responsible authority Other actions: –request human intervention –restart –contextual help

7 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics ISO Icon design process identification of need for the graphical symbol description of the purpose –of the graphical symbol and identification of any orientation considerations unique title analysis of –characteristics of the intended users, –the task involved –context of use existing or proposed symbol originals –in the same and/or related fields; design of a symbol legibility and comprehension of the graphical symbol

8 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Symbol families Information Directional Feedback

9 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics NIST testing: Phase 1 Participant group: 13 NIST employees Background: different educational backgrounds and disciplines English as 2nd language: 3/13 Nationality: n/s Age: mid-20s to early 60s Gender: n/s Pre-condition: all NIST employees have been fingerprinted Setting: Interview in office of participants Context –9/13: description as approach to immigration –last 4/13: mock fingerprint scanner placed on desk Data collection: –interview about symbol meaning before and after description of process

10 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics NIST testing: Phase 2 Participant group: 44 volunteers from Washington DC Background: Range of educational and professional English as 2nd language: all Nationality: Wide international origin Age: 25 –70 Gender: ~ 50:50 Precondition: no work experience in biometrics Setting: briefing room, followed by testing room Context: Instructions to follow symbols and leave 10 fingerprints on mock scanner Data collection: Talk-aloud protocol

11 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics NIST testing: Results Phase 1: Number of alternative symbols rejected Phase 2: –Results: almost everyone ok: with order and sequence generally ok: redo, time, get help –Problems: when additional symbols used, eg pressure in addition to placement unsure when to remove hand from scanner

12 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Other support during process During finger placement: –Wait/hold –Press more/less –Move finger(s) to left/right –Move finger(s) up/down –Rotate finger(s) till align –Indication of which finger(s) to perform action on –Removal of finger/hand from scanner Bold: already considered Italics: not yet considered

13 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Other dimensions Illumination Animation Sound Tactile

14 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Wider context of the system - questions Baecker, Small and Mander (1991) Context of animation –Identification: what is this? –Transition: where have I come from or am going to? –Orientation: where am I? –Choice: what do I do now? –Demonstration: what can I do with this? –Explanation: how can I do this? –Feedback: what is happening? –History: what have I done? –Interpretation: why did that happen? –Guidance: what should I do now?

15 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Usability of biometrics in system context - 1 Recognition of the existence of the biometric option –ahead of time Chunking of information –check entitlement; present document; position self correctly Classes of subjects allowed to exercise option –entitled parents with children may not be entitled any longer Cost-benefit to user –costs/benefits of being seen to step out of line –cost reduction if follow others (sheep effect) –cost increase if fails to work for user (rejection, embarrassment)

16 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Usability of biometrics in system context - 2 Attractors/Distractors –positioning (too high, too low) Information –at the right time (continuously running videoclip) How do I get started? Encumbrances –baggage, tickets What do I do next? How do I summon help? Too much help!! –users abrogate responsibility – leave passport in reader When is it finished? –US-VISIT: finger, face, ticket

17 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Usability of biometrics in system context - 3 Are the subjects mental models the same as operators? –users not clear about face recognition as the purpose –logical order of presentation of fingerprints Following other subjects actions –delay effect Expectations of timing –feedback in IRIS –chip reading time for UK passport

18 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Testing and reporting of results Early work by NPL within EUs project, BIOTEST Within the framework of ISO/IEC WD 19795? –technology, scenario, operational –in particular, Biometric Performance Testing And Reporting -- Part 6: Testing Methodologies for Operational Evaluation? End-to-end system performance, segmented processes Issues: –Subject demographics especially (non) habituated, (un)motivated, stressed, encumbered, disabled –Inclusion of other users, e.g. those no longer entitled, as they are accompanied by children –inclusion of attempts by those not entitled –levels of awareness

19 23-24 June 2008 M Rejman-Greene International Workshop on Usability & Biometrics Summary Work on icon standard started –definition of complete set of icons? Research required –NIST studies as a pathfinder –relationship to existing icons in the environment of use –accessibility of icons Usability of the wider system –how does this fit in with 24779? Testing and reporting –within current biometric testing framework?


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