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Final Digestion and Absorption Chapter 15 Section 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Final Digestion and Absorption Chapter 15 Section 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Final Digestion and Absorption Chapter 15 Section 3

2 Key Concepts What digestive processes occur in the small intestine, and how are other digestive organs involved? What digestive processes occur in the small intestine, and how are other digestive organs involved? What role does the large intestine play in digestion? What role does the large intestine play in digestion?

3 Key Terms Small intestine Liver BileGallbladder PancreasVillus Large intestine Rectum Anus

4 The stomach The stomach can be thought of as the ticket taker of the digestive system. The stomach can be thought of as the ticket taker of the digestive system. Once the food has been changed into a thick liquid, the stomach releases a little of the liquid into the next part of the digestive system. The slow smooth passage of liquid ensures digestion and absorption can take place efficiently Once the food has been changed into a thick liquid, the stomach releases a little of the liquid into the next part of the digestive system. The slow smooth passage of liquid ensures digestion and absorption can take place efficiently

5 Small Intestine After the liquid leaves the stomach it enters the small intestine After the liquid leaves the stomach it enters the small intestine It is 6 meters long, and makes up two thirds of the length of the digestive system It is 6 meters long, and makes up two thirds of the length of the digestive system It is approx. 2-3 centimeters wide It is approx. 2-3 centimeters wide Mechanical digestion is complete and chemical digestion has just begun Mechanical digestion is complete and chemical digestion has just begun

6 (2) Starches and proteins have been partially broken down Starches and proteins have been partially broken down Fats havent yet been digested at all Fats havent yet been digested at all Almost all chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine Almost all chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine As it moves into the small intestine it mixes with enzymes and secretions that are produced by the small intestine, the liver and the pancreas As it moves into the small intestine it mixes with enzymes and secretions that are produced by the small intestine, the liver and the pancreas Small tubes deliver this substance Small tubes deliver this substance

7 Liver Largest organ in the body Largest organ in the body Breaks down such things as medicines and helps eliminate nitrogen from the body Breaks down such things as medicines and helps eliminate nitrogen from the body Produces bile Produces bile Bile physically breaks up large fat particles into smaller fat droplets Bile physically breaks up large fat particles into smaller fat droplets Ex. Soap breaks up grease into small droplets that can mix with soapy water and be washed away. Bile mixes with the fats in food to form small droplets. Droplets can then be chemically broken down by enzymes produced in the pancreas. Ex. Soap breaks up grease into small droplets that can mix with soapy water and be washed away. Bile mixes with the fats in food to form small droplets. Droplets can then be chemically broken down by enzymes produced in the pancreas.

8 Pancreas Produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine and help break down starches, proteins and fats Produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine and help break down starches, proteins and fats Digestive enzymes do not break down all food substances Digestive enzymes do not break down all food substances Ex -fiber in food isnt broken down Ex -fiber in food isnt broken down Instead fiber thickens the liquid material in the intestine making it easier for peristalsis to take place Instead fiber thickens the liquid material in the intestine making it easier for peristalsis to take place

9 Absorption in the small intestine After chemical digestion, small nutrient molecules are ready to be absorbed by the body After chemical digestion, small nutrient molecules are ready to be absorbed by the body The inner surface or lining of the small intestine looks bumpy-villi (tiny finger shaped structures) cover the surface The inner surface or lining of the small intestine looks bumpy-villi (tiny finger shaped structures) cover the surface Villi absorb nutrient molecules Villi absorb nutrient molecules

10 (2) Tiny blood vessels run through the center of each villus Tiny blood vessels run through the center of each villus Nutrient molecules pass from cells on the surface of a villus into blood vessels Nutrient molecules pass from cells on the surface of a villus into blood vessels Blood carries the nutrients throughout the body for use by body cells Blood carries the nutrients throughout the body for use by body cells If all the villi were laid out the total surface area of the small intestine would be about as large as a tennis court If all the villi were laid out the total surface area of the small intestine would be about as large as a tennis court The increased surface enables digested food to be absorbed much faster than if the walls of the small intestine were smooth The increased surface enables digested food to be absorbed much faster than if the walls of the small intestine were smooth

11 Large intestine 1.4 meters long-average size of a bathtub 1.4 meters long-average size of a bathtub Runs up the right-hand side of the abdomen, across the upper abdomen and then down the left hand side Runs up the right-hand side of the abdomen, across the upper abdomen and then down the left hand side Contains bacteria that feed on the material passing through-they are helpful bacteria they make certain vitamins-ex vitamin K Contains bacteria that feed on the material passing through-they are helpful bacteria they make certain vitamins-ex vitamin K

12 (2) Large intestine contains water and undigested food Large intestine contains water and undigested food As the material moves through the large intestine water is absorbed into the bloodstream As the material moves through the large intestine water is absorbed into the bloodstream Remaining material is reading for elimination from the body Remaining material is reading for elimination from the body Large intestine ends in the rectum Large intestine ends in the rectum Waste material is compressed into a solid form Waste material is compressed into a solid form The waste material is eliminated from the body through the anus at the end of rectum The waste material is eliminated from the body through the anus at the end of rectum

13 1. What are the functions of the small intestine? Absorption Absorption Most chemical digestion takes place here Most chemical digestion takes place here

14 2.Do foods pass through the liver and pancreas? no no

15 3. What is their role in digestion? The liver produces bile that breaks up fat particles The liver produces bile that breaks up fat particles Pancreas produces enzymes that help break down starches, proteins and fats Pancreas produces enzymes that help break down starches, proteins and fats

16 4. What is the advantage of a long small intestine? The length provides more surface on which nutrients are digested and absorbed. The length provides more surface on which nutrients are digested and absorbed.

17 5. What structures are inside the single villus in the diagram? Blood vessels run through it Blood vessels run through it

18 6. How do nutrients from the small intestine get to the rest of the body? They pass from the cells on the villi into blood vessels They pass from the cells on the villi into blood vessels

19 7. What two digestive processes occur in the small intestine? Chemical digestion Chemical digestion absorption absorption

20 8. Which key nutrient is absorbed in the large intestine water water

21 9. What happens as food moves through the large intestine Water is absorbed into the bloodstream and the remaining material is readied for elimination from the body Water is absorbed into the bloodstream and the remaining material is readied for elimination from the body


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