Presentation on theme: "Examples Examples are references to or descriptions of unique instances Can an example be verified? Is the example representative? Is the example relevant?"— Presentation transcript:
Examples Examples are references to or descriptions of unique instances Can an example be verified? Is the example representative? Is the example relevant? Is the example appropriately detailed?
Reasoning by Analogy Similarity between separate cases. Literal analogy (parallel case) We license drivers; therefore, we should license gun owners. Evidence case: Drivers requirements Conclusion case: Gun owners requirements Conclusion: Licensing gun owners.
Tests of Analogy Are the cases dissimilar in critical ways? Are the cases accurately represented? Is there a better analogy available.
Other Literal Analogies Super analogies (conclusion is even more likely) Corporal punishment is illegal in prisons, so how can we justify it in schools? Judicial analogies (equal treatment) The car ahead of me was speeding, so why are you giving me a ticket.
Figurative Analogy Metaphor (different realms of experience) About bringing terrorists to justice by eliminating their support: You can more easily catch a snake by draining the swamp. Figurative analogies work better as illustrations than as proof.
Exercise A1 (p. 190) Literal analogy Evidence case: Cabinet makers Conclusion case: Nuclear scientists Conclusion: Scientists should not make moral judgments about nuclear weapons.
Exercise A3 Judicial analogy Evidence case: Male gamete donor Conclusion case: Female gamete donor Conclusion: The female gamete donor should have the same rights as the male donor.
Exercise A5 Super analogy Evidence case: Albert Einstein Conclusion case: The average American Conclusion: Its not surprising that the average American has trouble understanding the tax code.
Exercise A7 Judicial analogy Evidence case: Mens salaries Conclusion case: Womens salaries Conclusion: Women should earn the same as men.
Exercise A9 Super judicial analogy Evidence case: Neo-Nazis Conclusion case: Eminem Conclusion: Eminems freedom of speech should be protected.
Exercise B1 Example: If a child is born with a withered arm, all a lawyer has to do is get that child before a jury and hell win an award. General conclusion: Malpractice now means bad result.
Exercise B3 Example: One man in Alaska was fired after having been diagnosed with AIDS, because the employer couldnt pay the insurance premium. General conclusion: The insurance industry discriminates against the AIDS victims.
Exercise B5 Example: The Koreans have successfully trained captains in the international laws about dumping waste into the oceans. General conclusion: Sea captains can be trained to be conscientious about pollution.
Exercise C1 Example: Israel and Sweden have had no problems with homosexuals in their militaries. General conclusion: Homosexuals should not be viewed as security risks in the military.
Exercise C3 Example: Robert Downey, Jr. ruined his career because of drug use. General conclusion: The government must not advance this devastation by legalizing drugs.
Exercise C5 Example: Sadam Hussein and Fidel Castro are still in power. General conclusion: Economic sanctions and quarantines are doomed to failure.
Exercise C7 Example: A happy couple in which the wife is 72 and the husband is 19. General conclusion: Age differences are insignificant to the success of a marriage.
Exercise C9 Example: Jamaica Evidence case: Washington DC crime rate Conclusion case: Jamaican crime rate after gun law Conclusion: Gun law in Jamaica did not reduce crime. Outlawing guns does not reduce crime.
Exercise C11 Literal analogy Evidence case: Slamming your hand in a car door. Conclusion case: An animal getting caught in a trap. Conclusion: Animals caught for their fur suffer pain (implied).