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Using UML, Patterns, and Java Object-Oriented Software Engineering Chapter 4,Use Case and Statechart Diagrams.

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Presentation on theme: "Using UML, Patterns, and Java Object-Oriented Software Engineering Chapter 4,Use Case and Statechart Diagrams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using UML, Patterns, and Java Object-Oriented Software Engineering Chapter 4,Use Case and Statechart Diagrams

2 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 2 Outline of this Class Use case diagrams Describe the functional behavior of the system as seen by the user Class diagrams Describe the static structure of the system: Objects, attributes, associations Sequence diagrams Describe the dynamic behavior between objects of the system Statechart diagrams Describe the dynamic behavior of an individual object Activity diagrams Describe the dynamic behavior of a system, in particular the workflow.

3 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 3 Another view on UML Diagrams

4 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 4 UML Use Case Diagrams An actor represents a role, that is, a type of user of the system. Passenger PurchaseTicket Used during requirements elicitation and analysis to represent external behavior (visible from the outside of the system) Use case model: The set of all use cases that completely describe the functionality of the system. A use case represents a class of functionality provided by the system.

5 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 5 Use Case Example Handle Returns Main Success Scenario: A customer arrives at a checkout with items to return. The cashier uses the POS system to record each returned item. Alternate Scenarios: -If they paid by credit, and the reimbursement transaction to their credit account is rejected, inform the customer and play them with cash. - If the item identifier is not found in the system, notify the Cashier and suggest manual entry of the identifier code. - If the system detects failure to communicate with the external accounting system,.....

6 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 6 Actors An actor is a model for an external entity which interacts (communicates) with the system: User External system (Another system) Physical environment (e.g. Weather) An actor has a unique name and an optional description Examples: Passenger: A person in the train GPS satellite: An external system that provides the system with GPS coordinates. Passenger Name Optional Description

7 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 7 Use Case A use case represents a class of functionality provided by the system. Use cases can be described textually, with a focus on the event flow between actor and system. The textual use case description consists of 6 parts: 1.Unique name 2.Participating actors 3.Entry conditions 4.Exit conditions 5.Flow of events 6.Special requirements. PurchaseTicket

8 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 8 Textual Use Case Description Example 1. Name: Purchase ticket 2. Participating actor: Passenger 3. Entry condition: Passenger stands in front of ticket distributor Passenger has sufficient money to purchase ticket 4. Exit condition: Passenger has ticket 5. Flow of events: 1. Passenger selects the number of zones to be traveled 2. Ticket Distributor displays the amount due 3. Passenger inserts money, at least the amount due 4. Ticket Distributor returns change 5. Ticket Distributor issues ticket 6. Special requirements: None. Passenger PurchaseTicket

9 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 9 Uses Cases can be related Extends Relationship To represent seldom invoked use cases or exceptional functionality Includes Relationship To represent functional behavior common to more than one use case.

10 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 10 The > Relationship > relationships model exceptional or seldom invoked cases The exceptional event flows are factored out of the main event flow for clarity The direction of an > relationship is to the extended use case Use cases representing exceptional flows can extend more than one use case. Passenger PurchaseTicket TimeOut > NoChange > OutOfOrder > Cancel >

11 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 11 The > Relationship > relationship represents common functionality needed in more than one use case. > behavior is factored out for reuse, not because it is an exception. The direction of a > relationship is to the using use case (unlike the direction of the > relationship). Two use cases are related by an include relationship, if one of them includes the second one in its own flow of events. Passenger PurchaseSingleTicket PurchaseMultiCard > CollectMoney > NoChange > Cancel > Cancel >

12 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 12 Example of > relationship - 1

13 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 13 Example of > relationship - 2

14 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 14 Example of > relationship - 3

15 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 15 Example of > relationship

16 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 16 Textual Use Case Description Example 1. Name: DoHomework 2. Participating actor: Student 3. Entry condition: Student received exercise sheet Student is in good health 4. Exit condition: Student delivered solution 5. Flow of events: 1. Student fetches the exercise sheet 2. Student reads through the assignments 3. Student processes the assignments and types the solution in his Computer. 4. Student prints out the solution 5. Student delivers the solution in the following exercise 6. Special requirements : None. Student DoHomework

17 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 17 Sınıf Çalışması (10 dakika) - Müşteri, garsona sipariş verir. - Restoranda çalışmak isteyen adayların başvurularını restoran yöneticisi değerlendirir. İşe alımları da o yapar. - Restoranda kullanılan malzemeler için düzenli sipariş verilmesi gerekmektedir. Malzemeler belirli bir tedarikçiden sağlanır. - Malzemelerin siparişini restoran yöneticisi verir. Bunu yaparken, sürekli olarak satışları ve stokları takip etmesi gerekir. - Stokları takip etmek için, restoran yöneticisinin tuttuğu düzenli raporlar bulunur.

18 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 18 Sınıf Çalışması Order Food Hire Employee Reorder supplies Produce mgt. reports Track sales and inv. data > Customer Applicant Supplier Service Person Manager

19 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 19 Another view on UML Diagrams

20 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 20 Sequence Diagrams Used during analysis To refine use case descriptions to find additional objects (participating objects) Used during system design to refine subsystem interfaces Instances are represented by rectangles. Actors by sticky figures Lifelines are represented by dashed lines Messages are represented by arrows Activations are represented by narrow rectangles. selectZone() pickupChange() pickUpTicket() insertCoins() TicketMachine Passenger Focus on Controlflow Messages -> Operations on participating Object zone2price selectZone() insertCoins() pickupChange() pickUpTicket() TicketMachine

21 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 21 Sequence Diagrams can also model the Flow of Data The source of an arrow indicates the activation which sent the message Horizontal dashed arrows indicate data flow, for example return results from a message Passenger selectZone() ZoneButtonTarifScheduleDisplay lookupPrice(selection) displayPrice(price) price Dataflow …continued on next slide...

22 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 22 Messages Define a particular communication between lifelines of an interaction Examples of communication raising a signal invoking an operation creating or destroying an instance Specify (implicitly) sender and receiver are shown as a line from the sender to the receiver Form of line and arrowhead reflect message properties

23 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 23 Message Types Asynchronous Synchronous Call and Object creation Reply Lost Found

24 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 24 Lifeline and Execution Specification A lifeline represents an individual participant (or object) in the interaction A lifeline is shown using a symbol that consists of a rectangle forming its head followed by a vertical line (which may be dashed) that represents the lifetime of the participant An execution specification specifies a behavior or interaction within the lifeline An execution specification is represented as a thin rectangle on the lifeline.

25 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 25 Sequence Diagrams: Iteration & Condition Iteration is denoted by a * preceding the message name Condition is denoted by boolean expression in [ ] before the message name Passenger ChangeProcessor insertChange(coin) CoinIdentifierDisplayCoinDrop displayPrice(owedAmount) lookupCoin(coin) price [owedAmount<0] returnChange(-owedAmount) Iteration Condition …continued on next slide... …continued from previous slide... *

26 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 26 Creation and destruction Creation is denoted by a message arrow pointing to the object Destruction is denoted by an X mark at the end of the destruction activation In garbage collection environments, destruction can be used to denote the end of the useful life of an object. Passenger ChangeProcessor …continued from previous slide... Ticket createTicket(selection) free() Creation of Ticket Destruction of Ticket print()

27 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 27 Execution Specification Sequence diagram: An Example Sequence diagrams represent the behavior of a system as messages (interactions) between different objects. Lifeline Message

28 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 28 Sequence Diagram - Ex

29 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 29 Sequence Diagram - Ex

30 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 30 Sequence diagram: An Example

31 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 31 Sequence diagram: An Example

32 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 32 Sequence Diagram Properties UML sequence diagram represent behavior in terms of interactions Useful to identify or find missing objects Time consuming to build, but worth the investment Complement the class diagrams (which represent structure).

33 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 33 Sınıf Çalışması (15 dakika) Müşterinin ATMden para çekmek istemesine ait sıralama (sequence) diyagramını çiziniz. - Sokulan kart kontrol edilmeli. - Eğer onaylanırsa, müşterinin istediği miktar kontrol edilmeli. - Eğer onaylanırsa, işlem başlatılmalı. - Para verildikten sonra, müşteriye dekont verilmesi. - Müşteri hesabında yapılan işlemlerin kaydedilmesi.

34 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 34 Örnek Çözüm

35 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 35 Another view on UML Diagrams

36 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 36 UML first pass: Statechart diagrams State Initial state Final state Transition Event Represent behavior of a single object with interesting dynamic behavior. button1&2Pressed button1Pressed button2Pressed button1Pressed button1&2Pressed Increment Minutes Increment Hours Blink Hours Blink Seconds Blink Minutes Increment Seconds Stop Blinking

37 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 37 How to draw statechart diagrams? Identify important objects to be analyzed. Identify the states. Identify the events.

38 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 38 Statechart Diagram Example

39 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 39 Statechart Diagram Example

40 Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 40 UML Summary UML provides a wide variety of notations for representing many aspects of software development Powerful, but complex UML is a programming language Can be misused to generate unreadable models Can be misunderstood when using too many exotic features We concentrated on a few notations: Functional model: Use case diagram Object model: class diagram Dynamic model: sequence diagrams, statechart and activity diagrams


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