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Structural Modelling.

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Presentation on theme: "Structural Modelling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Structural Modelling

2 Tujuan Memahami aturan dan notasi class dan object diagram
Memahami langkah-langkah pembuatan class dan object diagram Memahami keterkaitan antara use-case dan structural model

3 Deskripsi A structural model describes the structure of the data that supports the business process in an organization. During the analysis phase, the structural model presentas the logical organization of data without indicating how the data are stored, created, or manipulated. Analysts need to understand the information that is used and created by the system A structural model is a formal way of representing the objects that are used and created by a business system.

4 It illustrates people, places, or things about which information is captured and how they are related to each other. At this stage, the structural models doesn’t represent software component or classes in an OO programming language. It should represent the responsibilities of each class and the collaborations between the classes. Structural models are depicted using CRC cards, class diagram, and object diagram

5 Tujuan Structural Modelling
Reduce the “semantic gap ” between the underlying problem domain and the evolving structural model. Create a vocabulary that can be used by both the analyst and users. Represent the things, ideas, or concepts, that is, the objects, contained in the domain of the problem and their relationships.

6 Classes Templates for creating instances or objects Typical examples:
Concrete Abstract Typical examples: Application domain, user interface, data structure, file structure, operating environment, document, and multimedia classes Atributes : Units of information relevant to the description of the class Only attributes important to the task should be included

7 Operations : Action that instances/objects can take
Focus on relevant problem-specific operations (at this point)

8 Relationship Generalization Aggregation Association
Enables inheritance of attributes and operations Example : staff dan nurse Aggregation Relates parts to wholes Example : house dan door,window Association Miscellaneous relationships between classes Example : patient dan appointment

9 class-resbonsibility-collaboration card

10 Content Responsibilities Collaboration Knowing Doing
Objects working together to service a request

11 A CRC Card


13 class diagram

14 Notasi Class Diagram A CLASS ClassName -attribute +operation ()
AN ATTRIBUTE AN OPERATION AN ASSOCIATION ClassName -attribute +operation () Attribute name/ derived attribute name operation name () 1..* 0..1 ______verb phrase____

15 Example

16 Atribut Derived attributes Visibility
/age, for example can be calculated from birth date and current date Visibility Public (+) Protected (#) Private (-)

17 Operasi Constructor Query Update Creates object
Typically not written explicitly on the class diagram Query Makes information about the state of an object available to other objects Update Changes values of some or all attributes

18 Relationship Tepat satu Nol atau lebih Satu atau lebih
Sebuah Department hanya memiliki satu Boss Nol atau lebih Satu Employee memiliki nol atau banyak Child Satu atau lebih Satu Boss memimpin satu atau lebih Employee Department Boss 1 Employee Child 0 .. * Boss Employee 1..*

19 Multiple, disjoint ranges
Nol atau satu Seorang Employee dapat menikah dengan nol atau satu pasangan Kisaran tertentu Seorang Employee dapat memperoleh jatah Vacation 2 hingga 4 kali per tahun Multiple, disjoint ranges Seorang Employee adalah anggota dari satu hingga tiga atau lima komite Employee Spouse 0..1 Employee Vacation 2..4 Employee Comitte 1..3, 5

20 In these cases, a class is formed, called an association class
Sometimes a relationship has associated properties, especially when its classes share a many-to-many relationship. In these cases, a class is formed, called an association class Example : Gejala Penyakit Pengobatan

21 Generalization & Aggregation
Occurs when we need to use words as “is a-kind-of” to describe the relationship. Example : the blue line Aggregation Classes actually comprises other class Example : the red line

22 Object Diagram

23 Object Identification
Common approaches : Textual analysis Common object lists Patterns

24 Textual Analysis Analysis of the text in the use-case descriptions
Starts by reviewing the use-case descriptions and the use-case diagrams. Identify potential objects, attributes, operations, and relationships. The nouns  possible classes, the verbs  possible operations

25 Common Object List Simply list the objects that are common to the business domain of the system. Several categories : things incidents roles interactions

26 Patterns Is a useful group of collaborating classes that provide a solution to a commonly occurring problem. For example : many business transactions involve the same type of objects and interactions : a transaction class a transaction line item class an item class a location class a participant class

27 Steps for Object Identification and Structural Modeling
1. Create CRC cards by performing textual analysis on the use-cases. 2. Brainstorm additional candidate classes, attributes, operations, and relationships by using the common object list approach. 3. Role-play each use-case using the CRC cards. 4. Create the class diagram based on the CRC cards. 5. Review the structural model for missing and/or unnecessary classes, attributes, operations, and relationships. 6. Incorporate useful patterns. 7. Review the structural model.

28 Class Tasks Gambarlah class diagram untuk kelas-kelas berikut :
Movie (title, producer, length, director, genre) Ticket (price, adult or child, showtime, movie) Patron (name, adult or child, age) Patient (age, name, hobbies, blood type, occupation, insurance carrier, address, phone) Insurance carrier (name, number of patients on plan, address, contact name, phone) Doctor (speciality, provider identification number, age, phone, name)

29 Gambarkan relasi-relasi berikut :
Seorang pasien hanya boleh mendaftar ke seorang dokter, dan seorang dokter boleh memeriksa banyak pasien Seorang pegawai dapat memiliki satu ekstensi telpon, dan satu nomor ekstensi telpon hanya diberikan untuk satu pegawai Sebuah teater dapat menayangkan banyak filem dan sebuah film dapat ditayangkan di banyak teater

30 Buatlah class diagram untuk situasi berikut :
Saat pasien pertama kali berkonsultasi, mereka harus mengisi informasi pasien yang berisi data-data tentang nama, alamat, nomor telpon, dan asuransi yang disimpan di file informasi pasien. Pasien hanya dapat terdaftar pada satu asuransi. Seorang pasien hanya dapat berkonsultasi dengan seorang dokter. Setiap kali pasien mengunjungi dokter, sebuah klaim asuransi dikirim kepada pihak asuransi berkaitan dengan pembayaran. Klaim berisi informasi kunjungan yaitu tentang tanggal, tujuan, dan biaya. Seorang pasien bisa mengajukan maksimal 2 klaim di hari yang sama.

31 Tugas Kelompok Buat paper tentang : Object Based Formal Specification (OBFS) Aturan : Minimal berasal dari 2 jurnal Tulisan dalam bahasa Indonesia dengan struktur dan tata bahasa yang tepat. Ditulis di kertas A4, minimal 5 halaman (tidak termasuk cover). Cantumkan referensi yang digunakan Dikumpulkan via dalam format pdf paling lambat 2 Juni 2011

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